Category Archives: Uncategorized

Tu-154 installation in FSX

A warning to start with. The Simulation of the TU-154-B2 is a very demanding aircraft and has a very steep learning curve, but if you are prepared to spent time and effort into learning how to flying this machine, you will find it most rewarding.

The Mighty Tu-154, Nato name “Careless”, used to be the main spar of the Russian fleet and is available for Microsoft Flight simulator X. The project is not free ware, but it is free to use.

Bratislava2013

Features:

  • Excellent internal and external 3d model
  • Fully functional 3d cockpit with FE panel and navigator station
  • Functional electric and hydraulic and pneumatic systems
  • Accurate simulation of the custom flight control system
  • Navigation with soviet era equipment, the NVU and RSBN systems
  • Comes with utilities like a payload and fuel loader and a navlog generator
  • Functional flight data recorder
  • doesn’t cost you anything! (free, but not freeware)

Con’s

  • Very steep learning curve
  • Documentation is not up to date and based on the FS9 aircraft.
  • Installation requires adjusting your FSX buttons and keys setup

Put the pro’s and con’s on the scale for your self, if you are still in doubt, go for it!

You can find it on the Project TU-154 official website.

The user manual gives a very detailed explanation of operation of the various systems, although written for the FS9 installation only.

It still took me more then a few hours to complete the puzzle and install this aircraft properly, so Ill post a guidance here to make your life easier. (Trust me, you need your efforts for flying this beast!)

Installation

Start by downloading the FSX installation files from their website. At the time of writing the files are:

  • PT-154B2 FSX version 1.3 (277MB )and
  • Update from version 1.3 to version 1.3.1 (65MB)

The files are self installing executables, install the 1.3 version first, then the 1.3.1 update.

Clipboard00

Don’t be alarmed if your computer doesn’t display the Cyrillic correctly. It just means that the software doesn’t support Unicode. If you want it to show proper Russian, simply go into Control Panel\Clock, Language, and Region/Region and Language, tab Administrative and Change system location for programs that don’t support uni-code. But..  you don’t have to, you can also just press next a few times until you are done.

Flight controls

FSX is designed for conventional aircraft, and with that, I mean American aircraft like Boeings and Cessna’s.

The flight control system of the Tu-154 is not very conventional, and for it’s complex systems to operate realistic, the developers had to remove the flight control completely out of FSX and into their own background application. This makes installation terribly complex, but the simulator more authentic.

You might want to make a backup of your existing flight control setup for later use.

  • Locate your FSX/Controls folder in:
    C:\Users\[user name]\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\FSX\Controls
  • Make a backup of the Standard.XML file. This is where al your button and joystick assignments are stored.

Clipboard04

Now start FSX and load a Tu-154.

  • Press CRTL-K to disable your joystick. (important!)
  • Open in the menu bar:
    Views/Instrument panel/JoyService

Clipboard03

It will take you some time, but in this Gui, you can select a flight control channel in the upper box, a joystick in the box below, and a joystick axis in the box below that one. To make sure you have the right control, you can move the correct axis and watch the indicator. You can also experiment with the advanced options like centre position, filter, non-liniarity, etc. You can reverse an axis by clicking on the “Reverse”[0] box. [1] means reversed. You also can select multiple channels to one lever, for example if you have only one throttle on your joystick, you can assign all 3 aircraft throttles to it.

Most importantly! Hidden next to the Green [R] button is a cap, Right click on that cap to OPEN it. inside is a STORE button. Press it after every control change, or you will have to do every thing again the next time you start FSX. (Like me…..)

The lower half of the box is for the Key’s on your Joystick(s). Assign as many keys as you like, At the very least make sure you have the Elevator trim up and down assigned, the auto-pilot disconnect, auto-throttle toggle and if you don’t have toe-brakes, a brake button.

When you are done, you can test your results in the Virtual Cockpit by moving the flight controls around. they should move now, and in the right direction.

Now go into the menu bar:
Options/Settings/Controls…

… and remove the joystick key’s for Elevator pitch control

Clipboard05

When complete, close FSX to finalise your settings.

Load control program

The Tu-154 comes with a load program that helps you manage the complex load- and trim sheet for this aircraft. As a perk it writes into the aircraft CFG file so it automatically loads your payload in FSX. note that you must add the fuel manually according to the load sheet!.

Find the Load Master file LMTu154.exe in:
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Games\Microsoft Flight Simulator X\project tupolev\LMTu154 B

When you open it up for the first time you need to set the aircraft .CFG location. you can find it in:
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Games\Microsoft Flight Simulator X\SimObjects\Airplanes\Tu-154B-2

Clipboard06

The first time it will attempt to load in Russian and you will see all those scary digits again. In the menu bar, select Options/Languages/English It will be in English the next time when you open it.

The НВУ calculator

The NVU Calculator, (I think NaVigation-Unit or something) will also start up in Russian the first time and needs a little push to the west side of the iron curtain.

In the folder
C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Games\Microsoft Flight Simulator X\project tupolev\NCALC FSX

  • Find the ncalc.ini file and
  • open it in a text editor.
  • Change Language=russian.lng in Language=english.lng
  • Save and exit the file.
  • Open the Ncalc.exe file
  • It prompts you to select the FS9 folder, but select the FSX folder instead.

Clipboard08

If it opens and it is in English you you have done well so far!

Clipboard09

Ok I think we are pretty much set up now.

// DRAFT  // Click HERE for the next blog, Flying the Туполев-154

FSUIPC

The next requirement is to install Peter Dowson’s FSUIPC module. You only need the free version, although if you have the paid version installed you can skip the next step.

After installation

Boeing 737-300 in X-plane 11

This is a work-in progress, once complete it will be converted from a blog post into a web page.

The 737-300

After the success of the 737 original series, Boeing designed the -300 as the first of the second generation, or more commonly known as the ‘classics’ series, which first flew in 1984.

The main improvement over the originals is the CFM56, high-bypass turbofan engine with better performance and fuel consumption and compliance with the new ICAO stage 3 noise regulations.

Also the flight deck was upgraded to include four colour CRT screens instead of analog flight instruments.

It can carry up to 149 passengers over a range of 1000 nautical miles, or about 120 passenger over a range of 2200 NM. More than 1000 aircraft of the -300 series have been sold, making it one of the most successful airliners ever built.

It was in production until 1999 when it was replaced by the -700 series of the Next Generation. In 2017, about 400 aircraft are still in operation.

In this virtual ‘type rating’ course in X-plane 11, we will be using the “737 Classic by IXEG”. It is a high quality payware add-on for x-plane 10 and 11, representing the -300 passenger variant with the 20k rated CFM56 engines.

Software

Official website: http://ixeg.net/
on X-aviation: http://www.x-aviation.com

At the moment of writing, the current version is x-plane 11.05 and IXEG 737 classic version 1.2

The procedures described are the ‘post 2005’ or ‘new’ procedures and updated with the 2006 and 2007 enhancements. Only use this guide for the simulator and not in your real 737. (just in case that you have one…)

Installation:

Installation in X-plane 10 and 11 is straightforward. During the installation you can choose to install a few different airline liveries as well.

After installing, you need to add an empty folder named “coroutes” in:
…X-Plane 11\Aircraft\X-Aviation\IXEG 737 Classic

In his location, FMS company routes will be stored.

coroutes

Compatible add-ons:

  • the Better Pushback utility is compatible, and highly recommendable with this aircraft
  • The RAAS utility is compatible as well
  • You can choose to update the FMS database from Navigraph (Payware)

Start up x-plane and you’ll be automatically prompted for activation.

Joystick setup:

The IXEG comes with it’s own custom joystick button options. At the minimum assign a button for the following (and found in the real aircraft here:)

IXEG/733/Autopilot/Disengage AP (on the yoke)
IXEG/733/Autopilot/Disengage AT (at the side of the thrust levers)
Engines/Basics/Engage TOGA power (on the top of the thrust levers)

IXEG options and setup

You can access the IXEG main menu by moving the mouse to the left side of the screen.

Hints & tips menu

are just that. have a read through if you wish.

Preferences menu:

In the visuals menu you can turn on and off several visual settings. Note that  the ‘draw vortices’ can be heavy on the GPU and reduce frame rates on some computers.

the Use ‘Steam gauge’ setting changes the engine instruments from digital to analog.

Under Misc you can set the Joystick CWS deadzone. CWS is a semi-automatic autopilot function which is hardly ever used, but here you can set the deadzone for the joystick. The default value is 0.10%

Under advanced you can choose between Kilograms/tonnes for European carriers, switching this off changes the cockpit in pounds for US carriers.

Preflight menu

Choose between cold and dark, turn around or ready to fly settings. Although an airline  flight crew would normally find the aircraft in the turn-around situation, for the full tutorial we start with cold and Dark

Quick fuel planner works good enough for simulator use. add a few track miles if you expect a headwind. for example, two hours with 40 knots headwind, add 80 NM to the distance. I would recommend a minimum of 5500 kg for flights shorter than 500 miles.

You can set the aircraft fuel and weight here, but I’d prefer to use the next menu, ground services

Ground services menu

Connect the ground power unit here. you can set the fuel and payload as well. using this menu will make sure that the fuel is correctly distributed in the tanks.

Observe weight limits (737-300 Basic GW, CFM56-3C-1, 20,000lb/86)
Max take-off 56.47t
Max Landing: 57.71t
Max Zero fuel: 47.62t

Note the Elevator trim setting, corresponding with the Cog in % MAC (Mean aerodynamic Chord) a MAC value of 21.0 would be ideal.

Cabin Crew menu

Here you would be able to open the doors, however it does not work at the moment.

View presets

can be accessed either via the menu or by holding the mouse in the lower left corner of the screen.

Failures menu

Gives you the option to fail or repair systems and recharge a drained battery.

 

Cockpit safety inspection

To prevent damage to systems or hazard for personnel, the aircraft is always powered up with the “cockpit safety inspection”.

  • Battery ON, standby power AUTO
  • Dome light As required
  • Wipers OFF
  • ELEC-HYD pumps OFF
  • Gear lever – down, 3 greens.
  • Flap lever – corresponding position (normally UP)
  • Weather radar OFF
  • Ground power ON

If no GPU is available:

  • Verify Fires handles are pushed IN
  • Alert ground staff for fire system test (they might pull the fire extinguishers from the gear bay)
  • Overheat detector normally
  • Hold test in FAULT/INOP
    • Observe, Master caution, OVHT/DET, FAULT, APU DET INOP (5 lights)
  • Hold test in OVHT/FIRE
    • Observe, Fire bell, fire warning, master caution, OVHT/DET, fire handles, ENG1 and ENG2 overheat (10 lights)
    • Note: Wheel well light does not illuminate without external power connected)
  • Extinguisher test 1 and 2, 3 green lights.

APU start:

  • 1 AC pump on if centre tank is empty,
    1 AC main pump and one centre tank pump on if Centre tank has more than 453 kg.
  • Start APU (hold 2 seconds in START)
  • when the blue APU GEN OFF BUS light illuminates, connect APU GEN 1 and 2
  • Galley power ON (you don’t want cold coffee!)

When AC power is established:

  • Hold test in OVHT/FIRE
  • Observe WHEEL WELL light illuminated

Domestic’s (heat/galley)

Preliminary Preflight Procedure – First Officer

Cockpit flow check

  • Aft overhead
    • IRS mode selectors OFF, then NAV. observe DC light, then ALIGN
    • Check Oxygen pressure
  • Other consumables
    • Hydraulic quantity
    • Engine oil quantity
    • Check aircraft documents
  • Flight deck door OFF (not simulated)
  • Emergency equipment: Extinguisher, axe, escape ropes, first aid
  • Aft overhead
    • Service interphone OFF (aft overhead panel)
    • Test stall warning 1 and 2 (stick shaker)
      • Note: stall warner will work 4 minutes after AC power is connected
    • Flight recorder guard closed
    • overspeed clacker
    • Engine caution lights extinguished
    • Gear lights 3 green.
  • Circuit breaker panel P6 (behind FO seat)
  • Manual gear extension access door CLOSED (on the floor)
  • Parking brake SET (so that the wear indicators can be checked in the walk around).
  • Circuit breakers (control stand and P18 panel behind the captain)

Take a seat, Check ATIS and obtain departure clearance

FMS setup (use CDU1)

  • Check IDENT page (2x)
  • POS INIT>
  • next,copy lat/long, previous LSK R4
  • ROUTE> fill in page
  • Next page, VIA / TO
  • [DEP ARR]
  • <DEP select SID and runway
  • ROUTE>
  • ACTIVATE>
  • [EXEC]
  • remove discontinuities in the LEGS page
  • [INIT REF]
  • set GW, cruise altitude, average cruise wind
  • N1 LIMIT> set assumed temp
  • TAKEOFF> [next page] set thrust reduction height
  • [next page] set flaps, CG, Vspeeds
  • CDU2 on legs page

Cockpit flow

  • Flight control panel
    • Yaw damper ON
  • Navigation panel
  • Displays panel
  • Fuel panel
  • Electrical panel
    • confirm galley ON, think hot coffee!!
  • Overheat and fire protection panel (if not already performed!)
  • APU as required
  • Equipment cooling
  • Emergency lights switch ARM and GUARDED
  • No smoking ON, seatbelts OFF
  • Window heat ON (at least 10 minutes prior to take-off)
  • Anti-ice OFF
  • Hydraulic panel, eng/ON elec/OFF
  • Air Conditioning, recirc fan ON, APU bleed on, L pack AUTO
  • Pressurisation, set Flight alt and landing alt
    • landing field elevation + Delta ISA pressure in feet.
    • field elevation 66 ft, QNH 1027 => (1013-1027)*30 +66 = -354ft
  • External lights, nav light ON, others off or as required
  • MCP panel
    • Course1, V2 speed, rw heading, altitude, Course2
    • Flight directors on, set PF side first
    • Auto-throttle ARM
  • Flight instruments
    • Speed bugs, V1/Vr/V2+15/Flap1 speed/minimum clean speed
    • alt bug acceleration altitude, and QNH
    • Clock set
  • Oxygen check
  • GPRS (set RAAS plugin to meters)

 

  • Disengage test switch position 1 and 2, check amber/red
  • reset fuel used, engine oil qty test
  • Autobrake RTO
  • Antiskid ON, light off
  • Autobrake RTO, light off
  • Engine instruments
  • STAB trim switches GUARD
  • radar off, up 10
  • Cargo fire panel AUTO and test
  • Radios
  • setup EFIS
  • HF radio OFF on the ground, don’t fry your ground crew (not simulated)
  • Adjust seat, rudder pedals and buckle up.

Preliminary Preflight Procedure – Captain

  • When he comes back from the walk around:
    • hang your wet coat and hat in the coat stowage and ask for hot coffee to warm your poor old hands (and curse at the FO if he forgot the galley switch!!)
  • Light test
  • oxygen
  • clock
  • Flight instruments
    • Clock set
    • Speed bugs, V1/Vr/V2+15/Flap1 speed/minimum clean speed
    • alt bug acceleration altitude, and QNH
    • standby instruments
  • Disengage test switch position 1 and 2, check amber/red
  • Speed brake, Thrust and reverse levers, flap selector set
  • Parking brake SET
  • Fuel switches OFF
  • STAB trim switches GUARD
  • Check radios, nav and audio
  • setup EFIS
  • Adjust seat and buckle up

Pre-flight checklist

PREFLIGHT
Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . Tested, 100%
AUDIO, EFI and IRS switches.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NORMAL
Window heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On
Pressurization mode selector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO
Flight instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heading___, Altimeter___
Parking brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Set
Engine start levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CUTOFF

After the checks is a good time to do the first flight of the day briefing (Captain).

During the take-off, If you see anything non-normal, please call it out as clearly as possible.

Below 80kts I will abort for any malfunction, after 80kts only for
– fire or fire warning
– engine failure
– predictive windshear warning
– or if the airplane is unable to fly.
Before V1 I will call “STOP”.
My Items, A/T disengage, Thrust Lever close, Speedbrake up, Emergency Reverse.
Passing 60kts You inform Tower: “Tower, BER118 stopping due to…
After Full Stop, I will stow the Reverser, set Parking Brake, Speed brake down detent, Inform the Cabin via PA: “ATTENTION CREW ON STATION; ATTENTION CREW ON
STATION”
Then we will assess situation and perform the memory items as required.

If EVACUATION is NEEDED we will perform the EVACUATION CHECKLIST
Otherwise I will call “CANCEL ALERT, CANCEL ALERT”

If anything happens after V1, we will continue the take-off with at least V2 speed. No actions below 400ft except silence the bell and gear up on my command.

At 400ft, “Heading select”, “Identify” you say what you think what the problem is, and I agree, you can perform the memory items if required.
The engine out procedure is continue runway heading 3000ft and then turn left to TRN.
Acceleration altitude is 1566ft, “SPEED 210” and I will accelerate to 210 knots, retract flaps on schedule. at 210, select max continuous thrust. perform the non-normal checklist and inform ATC that we request vectors for an ILS approach to runway 30.

Any questions so far?

Continue after receiving the final load sheet and departure clearance.

plan push back maneuver in better push back utility

We are on stand x, push in x direction, start engine 1 or 2 first. taxi out, first turn to the Left/right for runway X

It is your/my take-off ->

Standard take-off, at 400ft Heading select, at 1566ft, “Level change,  speed 210 and climb thrust”. Retract the flaps on schedule. At TRN radial 024 we’ll turn left to intercept the 198 inbound.

PF: Departure Briefing based on FMC data
PM: checks setup with navigation charts
• IDENT: Airplane, Database
• RTE 1: Origin, Destination, Dep. RWY, ATC call sign (BER118 Air Berlin)
• RTE 2: SID Identifier
• LEGS: Departure route, restrictions, constraints
• TAKEOFF 2: THR RED HT ACCEL HT, EO ACCEL HT,
• MCP
• VHF COM Panel, NAV set up
• Emergency Briefing (RTO and Engine out)

CTWOT / Chart/Terrain (msa)/Weather/Operational/Threats

Any questions or suggestions?

  • CDU PF on TAKEOFF REF, PM on LEGS page

Inform ground crew to disconnect GPU.

 

 

Before Push and start

  • Flight deck door LOCKED (Not simulated)
  • All doors and windows closed
  • obtain ATC start clearance, then beacon light ON
  • Obtain clearance from ground to pressurize hydraulics.
  • If pushback is required,
    • confirm steering pin is intalled,
    • otherwise hydraulic A switches (2x) OFF
    • Pushback utility, connect tow
  • before start flow (FO)
    • Fuel pumps ON
    • Seat belt signs ON
    • Hydraulics as required
    • Door caution lights extinguished
    • Pack’s off, bleed pressure checked
    • Transponder auto

BEFORE START checklist
Flight deck door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Closed and locked
Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___ LBS/KGS, PUMPS ON
Passenger signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Locked
MCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V2___, HDG___, ALT___
Takeoff speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V1___, VR___, V2___
CDU preflight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Completed
Rudder and aileron trim  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Free and 0
Taxi and takeoff briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Completed
ANTI COLLISION light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ON

Inform ground ready for push and start. Push back with better pushback utility

After pushback is complete and towbar removed:

  • Hydraulic system A switches ON, check 2800psi minimum
  • “start no 1/2 engine” Start switch to GRD
  • “N2 rotation, N1 rotation, 25%, fuel on” Start lever IDLE
  • “Fuel flow, EGT, 46% starter cutout”
  • Check N1, N2, EGT, fuel flow and oil pressure normal.
    • repeat for other engine
    • max 120 seconds start attempt, wait 10 seconds between attempts.
    • no restart attempt before N2 is below 20%
  • abort start for: slow RPM increase, no oil pressure, no EGT after 10 seconds, or EGT rises quickly to the limit.

Before taxi flow (FO)

  • Generators ON
  • Probe heat ON
  • Anti-ice as needed
  • Hydraulics ON
  • Packs and isolation switch auto
  • APU bleed off
  • FLT GRD switch to FLT
  • start switches CONT
  • APU off

After clear signal from ground crew

  • Set Flaps ____
  • Flight controls check
  • set pitch trim
  • Recall

BEFORE TAXI checklist
Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On
Probe heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On
Anti-ice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
Isolation valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO
ENGINE START switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONT
Recall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checked
Autobrake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RTO
Engine start levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE detent
Flight controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checked
Ground equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Clear

  • Taxi clearance received from ATC, then taxi-light on
  • Engine should run 2 minutes before takeoff to warm up, check oil temperature rise
  • If the centre tank has < 2300kg, centre tank fuel pumps OFF
  • CABIN REPORT received
  • PF sets radar ON, PM sets terrain ON

BEFORE TAKEOFF checklist
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___, Green light
Stabilizer trim. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___ Units

  • Line up,
  • transponder auto
  • TA/RA, and visual check traffic
  • check runway heading
  • enter runway offset in CDU when GPS is not in use. (not simulated)

 

Take-off

When cleared for take-off

  • Landing lights ON
  • Timers ON
  • “Takeoff”
  • 40% N1 and stabilize
  • TO/GA
  • “80 knots, check”
  • “V1, rotate”
  • Follow Flight director
  • “positive rate, gear up”
  • 400ft “Heading select”
  • check climb thrust at reduction height
  • acceleration height: “Level change, Speed 210”
  • Above Flaps 1 speed, call flaps 1
  • Above clean speed, call flaps UP
  • call Vnav/vnav when appropriate

After takeoff

  • Autopilot can be engaged above 400ft, flight director bars centered and in trim.
  • retract the outboard landing lights.
  • at transition altitude, set standard.
  • Gear up and off
  • auto brake off
  • anti-ice as required
  • packs ON
  • pressurisation check
  • Start switches OFF

At 10000ft

  • Accelerate to climb speed
  • Seat belt signs as required

FLAP

  • Fuel, After accelerating to 250 knots, and if there is more than 500kg fuel in the centre tanks, set centre tank pumps ON.
  • Lights, landing lights off
  • APU, Off if it was running
  • Pressurisation, check
  • after releasing the shoulder straps, release slowly, if they go with a bang, you might break the circuit breaker panel behind you 😉

 

AFTER TAKEOFF
Engine bleeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On
Packs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO
Landing gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP and OFF
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UP, no lights

Cruise and Descent

Check landing weight

Maneuvering speeds:
Maneuvre speeds

  • Monitor fuel, radios, engines navigation, weather and performance
  • Obtain ATIS
  • Speed bugs
    • Up, flaps 1, flaps 5, Vref+15 and VREF
  • standby altimeter, set QNH
  • FMS setup
    • [DEP ARR] set approach
    • [INIT REF] select VREF30, then LSK4R
    • Tune ILS frequency and course
    • Set approach minima
    • Set autobrake
  • Approach briefing with FMS
    • RTE: star
    • LEGS, waypoints and constraints
    • DES FORECAST, transition level, QNH
    • APPROACH, approach info, flaps, vref, autobrake
    • MSA DA MDA
    • Taxi routing
    • Specials

 

DESCENT checklist
Pressurisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LAND ALT___
Recall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Checked
Autobrake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
Landing data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VREF___, Minimums___
Approach briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Completed

 

Transition, set QNH

APPROACH checklist
Altimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___

tune ILS frequency and course.

  • Speed 210
  • Flaps 1, speed 190
  • VOR LOC arm
  • Intercept localiser
  • Flaps 5, speed 170
  • APP arm
  • Intercept Glide
  • Speedbrake ARM
  • Start switches CONT
  • A/P ENGAGE A and B CMD
  • at ~2000ft AAL, Gear down
  • Flaps 15, speed 150
  • Flaps 30, speed Vref+5 (or more on a windy day)

LANDING checklist
ENGINE START switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONT
Speedbrake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Armed
Landing gear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Down
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___, green light

  • Disconnect AP and AT, fly the flight directors
  • At 20ft, flare and retard thrust
  • Speedbrake UP
  • Reverse
  • Monitor auto-brake
  • Manual brake as required.
  • stow reverse at 60

After landing

Captain:

  • vacate the runway
  • Landing lights OFF
  • when clear of the runway, strobes off,
  • timer stop
  • When cleared to taxi, taxi-lights ON

First Officer:

  • Obtain taxi clearance and note landing time
  • When clear of the runway
    • Speed brake stowed
    • Flaps up
    •  Probe heat OFF
      • Master caution acknowledge
    • anti-ice off
    • flight to ground switch GRD
    • start switches OFF
    • APU as required
    • Flight directors off
    • auto-brake off
    • Radar OFF

On stand

  • Taxi light OFF
  • Park brake set
  • External power or APU generator on
  • PACKS off, Bleed air off
  • fuel levers OFF

After parking flow

  • Fuel pumps off
  • seat belts off
  • elec hydraulics off
  • beacon off
  • transponder standby

SHUTDOWN checks
Fuel pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Off
Probe heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Off
Hydraulic panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Set
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Up
Parking brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ___
Engine start levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CUTOFF
Weather radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Off

SECURE checks (read and do)
IRSs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Off
Emergency exit lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OFF
Window heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Off
Packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Off

If full shutdown is required:

  • APU bleed OFF, APU cooldown 2 min
  • APU OFF
  • Fuel pumps OFF
  • Galley OFF
  • Standby power OFF
  • BAT off

End of normal procedures. Abnormal and emergencies will follow soon!

Aircraft limitations

  • Max altitude FL370 / 8400 for take-off
  • Wind limits
    • 34 kt crosswind, 10 kt tailwind
    • 25 kt on wet runway, Braking action GOOD
    • 15 kt on runways of 30-40m with
  • Autopilot,
    • 1000ft AGL after take-off,
    • 160ft before landing single channel
    • 50ft below DA/MDA non-precision approach
    • Autoland max 25kt headwind, 15 cross, 10 tail
  • Turbulent air speed 280/.73
  • APU
    • 10000 ft with Bleed and electric
    • 17000 ft bleed only
    • 37000 ft electric only
  • Fuel
    • Maximum fuel imbalance 453 kg (1000 lbs)
    • Centre tank fuel pumps
      • When ON, crew must be in the flight deck to monitor low pressure lights
      • Ground ops, not on when <453 kg is in the centre tank
      • OFF when low pressure lights illuminate

Known issues with the IXEG 737:

As good as it is, this beautiful piece of software has a few known issues:

  • When the centre tank pumps are on, the APU draws fuel from the wing tank which is not transferred from the centre tank
  • FMS functions that are not working:
    • Progress page,
    • Holding page.
    • POS INIT on CDU2
    • PERF limits page 2/2 (speed limits)

Trouble shoot

If you cannot save a company route and see PROBLEM SAVING FILE in the Scratch pad, you need to add an empty folder “coroutes” in:
…X-Plane 11\Aircraft\X-Aviation\IXEG 737 Classic

Problem saving route B733

 

Takeoff warning

If you have a take-off config warning, it means that either:

  • Flaps are not set
  • Trim is not set
  • Auto brake is not in RTO
  • Speedbrake is not down

In X-plane, if you have assigned a joystick axis for the speed brake, it may be necessary to move the speedbrakes to the down position with the mouse to stow them fully.

Literature:

http://www.b737.org.uk and Chris Brady’s book “The Boeing 737 Technical Guide”

Wikipedia.org

Boeing 737 classic tech sheet

 

Back to homepage

www.flightinstructoronline.com

 

 

 

Antonov AN-24R in X-plane 11

This is an attempt  obtain a working version of the AN-24 in x-plane 11 and learn to fly it.

Links:

Forum post
https://forums.x-plane.org/index.php?/forums/topic/110091-anyone-get-the-an-24-working-with-xp11/&page=2

Github
https://github.com/julik/xp-an24/tree/X-Plane-11-parshukov-edition

Docs of Felis website

http://felis-planes.com/an24rv/docs/

Youtube

Day 1

Installed the AN-24 from github in Xplane 11. on loading, it sits with gear up on the runway. after selecting a start in the air (ILS approach is the best I can do with x-plane 11) the main gear comes down, the nose wheel collapses and remains in.

According to a form post, and in the description on various videos on youtube the latest version is available on VK social network.

Патч 2 для Ан24 все же выйдет в свет в эту пятницу! Ура! Подробности в нашей группе!
В основном изменения коснулись модели для X-Plane 11:
– Исправлены все коэффициенты двигателя

Patch 2 for An24 will still be released this Friday! Hooray! Details in our group!
In general, changes have touched the model for X-Plane 11:
– Fixed all engine factors

VK network profile:
https://vk.com/id458673441

I have made an account and requested membership of the x-plane closed group

https://vk.com/laminar.research.xplane

Awaiting acceptance in the private group for now….

In the mean time, further research has lead me to this page:

https://vk.com/search?c%5Bper_page%5D=40&c%5Bq%5D=felis%20an-24&c%5Bsection%5D=auto

and

https://cloud.mail.ru/public/KpAy/V1NQ2wtcx

 

English tutorial

With the help of the above tutorials, although they describe an older version of this software, I managed to go into the settings menu, switch the ‘real landing gear’ system off, do the ILS trick to extend the gear in free fall, and then return the aircraft on the tarmac. then it is even possible to return the hydraulic system to realistic.

реальное шасси ‘Realnye Chassi’

The bottom lower button that starts with “сохранить” means “save” to save the settings.

I will try to save in simple mode, so the next time the aircraft will load on its wheels.

The next challenge is to find how / or if / the panel gauges can be set to English, otherwise I am going to have a hard job translating everything 🙂

 

Next development, I have found the following version on avsim.ru:
An-24 v.3.4 RC1 Xplane-11 only.rar

https://www.avsimrus.com/forum/topic/142532-%D0%B0%D0%BD-24-%D0%BE%D1%82-felis-%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81-%D0%B2-xp11/?page=6

https://cloud.mail.ru/public/CNPu/XPxfzaWfy
Still not the latest version, aparently a patch for aerodynamics is being tested. (post from august 17 (3 months ago)

 

day 2: result!

I have been accepted into the Laminar group in VK. Hopefully I’ll be able to have a look later today.

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://flightinstructoronline.wordpress.com

 

 

The hypothetical next generation space MMO-experience

Good morning – the time is […]

..The serene voice of the alarm clock is rudely disrupted by the roar of a large starship flying by. Ewhhh.. where am I? what time is it?  Ah well, who cares anyway. I remember now, I’m not even on a planet, so good morning might as well be good evening or good night. What ever it is, it’s time to get up. I look out the window and see a city view and a sunrise in the distance. These are the cheapest rooms on the station, luxury rooms have full wall-screens.

As I reach out, a drop down menu appears. I scroll though the menu to change the vista into my calendar. Office 42, deck E, sector A, in 25 minutes. Today is my first day in the academy. Since I can’t afford to buy a civilian passport yet, I have but two options. Civilian or Military service. I know it is dangerous, but I passed the pre-selection for the navy and if all goes well I should be commanding my own ship in no-time! only thén I have the opportunity to explore the beauty of our galaxy, meet people in distance systems, maybe even one day visit the Sol system.

Enough dreaming about fancy rooms and a bright future, time to actually work on it! After a quick shower and a coffee flavoured protein shake from the mini-bar machine, I rush to the elevator. A few people shout ‘Hey rookie! where’s your diaper?’ after me, but I ignore them and carry on. If I mis my appointment I may have to clean their lavatories for the rest of my life!

I stop in front of a door like any other in the long corridor at E-deck. A friendly computerised voice says ‘access granted’ and the doors slides open.

“Name?” asks an old man behind a small metal desk? I reply politely.  “Sign here”, he commands. I know this could be my own death sentence, but with the alternatives in my mind, I place my thumb on the glass. “Welcome to the Navy, Middy, Next door, Uniform, rucksack and your wrist-pad. Good day”.

Well that was a glorious start. I enter the next room and find my uniform. It is more than that. It is a bio-suit. The design has not changed much in the last few centuries. Basically it is a tight suit with a thin layer of fluid between the layers, It keeps human body parts together and within survivable temperature, when exposed to the vacuum of space. It also has a radiation filter. Now I am getting exited! I always wanted to have a suit like this, but could never afford it. In the rucksack I find a helmet and my wrist-pad. The helmet has a holographic screen build in. Both the suit and the helmet communicate with the wrist-pad, which is basically the brains. It controls the suit, displays information and contains an emergency transmitter. The rucksack contains the life support and has spare room for a few personal items.

I open the door on the far side of the dressing room, assuming the clerk wouldn’t want to see me again. The next room is a grand library like room with computer terminals and a large window to the outside of the station. It must be a screen like the one in the inn, because the station is rotating but the stars and the planet outside seem stationary.

I take a seat behind one of the terminals and identify myself with my thumb. “welcome recruit, please complete the CBT and written exams of each course before reporting at the holodeck.”

There are a few courses to take. Human factors, spacecraft general knowledge, spacelaw, basic orbital physics and and faster than light travel. These are marked as mandatory. There are a few more optional courses and a whole list marked unavailable. I guess these are advanced lessons for later.

I hesitate for a moment, theoretical training was never my strongest point, but, it has to be done so lets get it over with quick.

The first course I select is space-law. In a short video a few rules are explained, most of them self explanatory like code of honor, behaviour in public areas, but also things like maximum speed in the vicinity of a space dock and that a pilot requires a licence and a type rating before flying a spacecraft. there are additional ratings for atmospheric flight and alike. 6 multiple choice questions and a timer appear. a..b..a again. Complete. 6/6. Aced it! That’s not too hard at all. On to the next one.

The human factors video starts like a bad horror movie. An astronaut is exposed to vaccum. His eyes explode, his blood starts boiling in this vanes and then he dies. “Pay attention or this could happen to you!” an exiting voice says. “Ok! you have my attention!.. Disgusting..”. It seems that the helmet is an important part of the space suit, well I guessed that. The Wrist watch contains an emergency locator beacon and the suit can keep you alive for a short period, depending on the quality of the suit.

Spacecraft general knowledge tells in essence they are thin sheet metal cans with highly explosive fuel for the conventional thrusters, a nuclear power plant for the warp drive. What could possibly go wrong? Not all ships are the same. smaller ships may not have warp capability. some ships are only for space travel and others can also land on planets of fly within atmospheres. There is a whole range of equipment that can be installed.

Orbital physics is the hardest module. It learns that all planets have mass and attract objects. Aka gravity. On the other side, if you fly around the planet fast enough, the centrifugal force would prevent you from falling down. this is called an orbit. I loose my attention at this point, I’m sure they demonstrate it again in the simulator.

within 30 minutes I have finished all the courses with reasonable results and the first holo-simulation briefing unlocks in the list with exercises. It is the turret gunner course. A brief explanation about different type of weapons and their effects follows. Another few multiple choise questions and a passmark. Now I’ve sat down for long enough. Time for some shooting practice.

The simulation starts up and I appear to be in a laser turret of a star-class destroyer. The vesel is about 100 meters long and hosts a crew of up to 20. Although nothing compared to the much larger battlecruisers, I am awed by the size of it. Rotate left, right, up down, recharge weapon. Yes I got it! Now give me something to shoot at!

As out of nothing a black fighter comes straight at me. I cant see the markings, but the blazing lazercannnons give away that he is the enemy. Rules of engagement: self defence! Let’s give him something to play with! Aim, fire. Miss! Darn he’s quick! Try again. Aim, fire! A laser burst is absorbed by his shield. It won’t harm much but every tiny bit helps. After a few well placed hits he breaks away. Coward! I shout, but immediately remember the training. Don’t get your ship damaged unnecessarily. It is expensive kit and it keeps you alive. It is smart to walk away from a fight that you can’t win.

I keep practising for a bit, the simulation get’s harder, now there are multiple targets, communication with the other gunners becomes important and the frigate is manoeuvring heavily at the same time. Bandit! Six ‘o clock high! shoot the basterds! “this is great” I thought…

My arm wrist lights up, a message. I stop the simulation run and return to the library. The message reads: Report to board room 12 ASAP, B deck, Sector A. I wonder what’s going on, am I in trouble?

B-deck looks a lot more tidy than the lower decks. This is where the higher ranked officers live. It is also further inwards so there is slightly less gravity. It is much brighter here too due to the matt glass walls on both sides of the corridor. When I stand in front of door 12, a computerised voice commands “stand by for access”. The matt glass door becomes translucent. A man with a beard and a well decorated uniform looks me up and down, then the door slides open.

I step through the door opening, there I stop and stand in attention. I don’t know what to say. Maybe it is better not to say anything.

“Hello recruit, at ease. Do you know why you are here?”. I think about the turret simulation. Did I brake any rules? Did I shoot friendlies? I know that the simulator is not a toy and ill behaviour like that will be taken serious.

“No sir”.. I reply quietly.

“I assume you mean No Captain”, the Captain said. “Well, you should probably read about the ranks again and how to correctly address an officer, but all right, I noted your performance and you have successfully completed the initial exams. You are hereby promoted to Seargent. Well done. Keep up the pace and you could be an officer your self soon enough. Dismissed.”

“Thank you sir”.. I salute and walk out of the room. I can just see the Captain shaking his head. That was probably not how to leave an officers room.

Wow, Sergeant! My first rank! Now I am allowed to sign on real missions and fly along as a gunner.

But not today. I return to my quarters with a satisfied big-smile and a shiny sergeant chevron on my shoulder.

B377 London to New York

July 1951

BA 509 -Speedbird ‘the Monarch’.

London to New York  (fuel stops in Shannon/Prestwick and Gander)

  • Standard first class ticket price per passenger:
    • Single fare 133£ 19s  (2014 equivalent of £3,758.00)
    • Return fare 241£  3s  (2014 equivalent of £6,765.00)
  • Time schedule
    • 21.00 to 08.00 (09.00 DST) Local times
    • 20.00 to 13.00 Greenwich mean time
    • Flight time 17 hours (with two tech-stops)
  • Fuel planning
    • EGLL to EINN 1:10 x 3800lb + 0:45 x 3800 lbs = 7283 lb
    • EINN to CYQX 5:44 x 3800lb + 0:45 x 3800 lbs = 24637 lb
    • CYQX to KJFK 3:11 x 3800lb + 0:45 x 3800 lbs = 14947 lb
  • Flight plan leg 1
    • EGLL 2000
    • N0250 F200 CPT L9 SHA
    • EINN 0110 EIKY
  • Flight plan leg 2
    • EINN 0030
    • N300 F260 SHA DCT DOGAL NATA YOOPY DCT YQX
    • CYQX 0544 CYYT
  • Flight plan leg 3
    • CYQX 0950
    • N300 F260 YQX T612 YYG J573 ENE

Links

B377 information website

Historic Airline time tables

Money value date converter

Weight and balance

 

Original post below, video is new. Enjoy!

 

— Old post—

It is important to load the aircraft within limits. A too heavy aircraft, or one with a too far forward of aft centre of gravity, may not fly very well.

The Piper 28 is build in America, unfortunately for Europeans, all the data is in gallons, pounds and inches. The easiest way is to do all the calculations in the US units and only convert to a metric value whenever it is necessary.

Make a weight and balance and fuel calculation for the planned flight. Your aircraft manual will contain a weight and balance chapter with specific numbers and a graph containing the loading ‘envelope’. You can calculate with pen and paper, or like my example, with a spreadsheet program on a computer.

Note! Always refer to the specific manual of your aircraft as slight differences may apply.

Loading

In short, if you add up the weight of the aircraft, everything in it and the fuel, you have the take-off weight, which should be less than the maximum take off weight.

Not only the weight, but also the location of the load makes a difference. The position of the load is measured in inches aft of a reference point called the datum line. The further aft, the longer the ‘arm’.

Multiply all the weights with their respective arm, the result is the moment. Then add all the moments together and then divide the total moment by the total weight to find the new arm.

Let’s have a look at that in practice.

With the aircraft loaded at zero fuel we have: 1649 lbs and 86.35 inch.
The moment is 1649×86.35 = 142368

Now add 48 USG. At 6 lbs per gallon this is 288 lbs. The arm for fuel is 95.00 inch so the moment is 288×95 = 27360

Added together is the takeoff weight, 1649+288 = 1937 lbs

For the arm, add the moments together, and devide by the weight. (142368+27360) / 1937 = 87.62 inch.

Draw this point in the graph and if it is within the envelope, you are save to fly!

Draw the various weight and arm values for take-off, landing and zero fuel in the graph. When the points are all within the ‘envelope’ it is safe to fly.

It’s easier than it looks on the excel sheet, but the sheet makes conversion of units, Lbs to kg to USG to litres easier, as well as last minute changes.

Exercise 2: Preparation for and action after flight

EASA Requirements
Exercise 2: Preparation for and action after flight
(A) flight authorisation and aeroplane acceptance;
(B) serviceability documents;
(C) equipment required, maps, etc.;
(D) external checks;
(E) internal checks;
(F) harness, seat or rudder panel adjustments;
(G) starting and warm-up checks;
(H) power checks;
(I) running down system checks and switching off the engine;
(J) parking, security and picketing (for example tie down);
(K) completion of authorisation sheet and serviceability documents.

In this lesson we will perform a flight preparation, the pre-flight checks, followed by a short introduction flight and the post flight actions.

The key elements of the pre-flight check are

  • Aircraft status
  • Notams
  • Weather
  • Briefing
  • Am I safe?

Aircraft status

Let’s start with the paperwork and have that out of the way before we go to the aircraft. The following documents must be present and, where applicable, not expired

  • Journal or tech-log and Deferred item list.
    • Check the last entries and see if there are any reported faults.
    • Make a new entry for your flight.
    • Write down the name and signature of the captain
  • Certificates of airworthiness (check date)
  • Certificate of registration
  • Noise certificate
  • Insurance documents (check date)
  • Weight schedule
  • Maps for the planned flying areas (check date)

Make a weight and balance calculation. For the introduction lesson, the instructor will normally make one for you. Read here about how it is done.

Notams

Notice To Airman contain messages that may be relevant to pilots. for example, unscheduled closure of airports, temporarily restricted airspace, new obstacles and so on. It is mandatory to read them and good practice to draw all relevant notams in your maps.

Notams can be quite cryptic, so again it is advisable to have a look at them together with the instructor. Here is an example of a notam.

EHLE (LELYSTAD/LELYSTAD)
Q) EHAA/QFUAU/IV/NBO/A/000/999/5228N00532E005
B) FROM: 15/04/10 09:07C) TO: PERM
E) FUEL EURO 95/98 NO LONGER AVBL.
NEW FUEL TYPE AVGAS UL91 NOW AVAILABLE.
REF AIP EHLE AD 2.4.
B0299/15

There are many places to retrieve the notams. A good location is the NATS AIS website. It is free of charge, but registration is required.

Weather

The weather check should contain current and forecast weather for the entire flight time, for all the relevant airports and the route.

Most airports have their own weather station and produce (automated) weather reports and forecasts called METAR and TAF (METeorological Actual Report and Terminal Area Forecast) These abbreviated messages contain useful information about the current and foretasted weather at the airport. Skyvector is a good source. It also shows winds aloft. Use as many sources as you can find like a local rainfall radar, satellite pictures and weather charts (see links for example websites).

weather

Finally make a GO/NO-GO decision. Is the weather marginal? Remember that it is always better -being down here, wishing you where up there, than being up there wishing you where down here!

Briefing

Do a pre-flight briefing to rehearse the upcoming flight. Even if you fly solo, just brief your self.

The briefing should contain

  • Aircraft status
    • Fuel requirements
    • Technical deficiencies
  • Notams
  • Weather
    • Departure, en route and arrival
  • Departure aerodrome
    • The expected routes and the runway in use
    • Performance limits and take off speeds
  • En route
    • terrain, navigation aids, airspace, alternate airports
  • Arrival aerodrome
    • The expected routes and the runway in use
    • Performance limits and reference speeds

Am I safe?

Did you eat and drink well? Do you feel healthy? No blocked nose? Not had any alcohol in the last 10 hours? Did to go to the bathroom? Bring a bottle of water in your flight bag? …

Also check that you brought your passport, licence, medical and logbook.

… Good, let’s go and find our aircraft. Don’t forget to take the keys with you!

Pre-flight inspection

First we should get a general impression of the state of the aircraft. Is there any obvious damage? snow on the wing? or is it standing in a puddle of oil? For now, let’s assume the person flying before you left it tidily and the aircraft is fully serviceable.

Remove all the chocks, covers and tie-downs and other ground handling stuff we don’t need any more.

Park the aircraft on a flat apron in such a way that you can taxi away easily. Use a tow-bar to steer the nose wheel and don’t push on the spinner. The spinner can bend and that can cause unpleasant vibrations in flight.

If it is windy, park the aircraft with the nose in the wind and also do not park with the tail towards an open hangar or terraces. You don’t want your spectators to spill their coffee when you start the engine.

Open de cockpit door and have a look (and smell) around. If everything is fine at first sight, no smell of fuel, let’s continue.

Set the parking brake by pulling the lever. Make sure that all the electrical switches off and all circuit breakers in. Then switch the battery to ON, as well as the exterior lights and the pitot heat.

Check the lights and carefully feel if the pitot heat warms up. Also look if the two holes, (for static and total pressure) are not blocked. Check the stall warning flipper, listen for the warning sound or look for the lamp, depending on version.

Then go back into the cockpit and switch the lights and the pitot heat off. Set the fuel selector to the left tank and test the electric fuel pump by switching it on briefly and listen for operation and observe a fuel pressure rise at the respective gauge. Also note the fuel quantity gauges. switch the pump off. now check the interior lights. Plug in and test your headset. There after switch off all electric switches and the battery switch. Adjust the seat position and the seatbelt adjustments and stow flight planning where you can reach it.

Set the flaps down to 40 degrees by pulling the lever. Careful not to stand on a deflected flap. The lock that supports weight works only in the up position.

Perform the walk around as described in the flight manual, check all the hinges and connectors of the flaps and ailerons. Count if all the static wicks are present. Their purpose is to reduce static interference on the radio’s.

In the fuel tank is a tab. If tab is in the fuel you have more than 17 USG in that tank. A full tank is 24 USG of usable fuel.

You can judge the type of fuel by its colour. Avgas is blue. Some variants can also run on ‘mogas’ which is yellow.

There is a drain point under the wing. Use it to clear any water and contamination from the fuel.

Check the landing gear, tires and brake assembly for leaks and damage. Clean the the windscreen with warm water and a soft cloth only.

The oil level should indicate between 4 and 6 qt and top-up as required. It is possible to fill up to 8qt of Oil, but you should only do so if you plan for a long trip. Any oil above 6qt may leak out via the vent tube and make a mess on the underside of the aircraft.

Only use the exact same oil type that is already in there. When in doubt, ask an engineer. A qt. Is a quarter USG and is is approximately one litre.

Close the oil cap, but not too tight, when the engine warms up, the metal extends and it can damage the thread.

At the front of the aircraft, the propeller and spinner are checked for damage.
The cooling ribs of the engine need to be clear. Feel behind the spinner if the alternator belt is under tension.

The ignition of the engine is independent from the electrical system. Therefore always check if the ignition is OFF before turning the propeller.

When you rotate the propeller with your hands you can hear click sound and a a spring unloading. This is the impulse coupling magneto system. More about that later. Now you just need to know that it is a normal sound.

Now drain the fuel strainer and check for contamination. This only works if the fuel selector is not in the closed position.

Repeat the same checks for the left wing.

Check the general condition of the aerials above and below the aircraft. The long antennas are VHF antennas for the com and nav radios. The little shark fins are the UHF aerials for the DME and the transponder. Radio and antennae layout may differ a bit per aircraft.

The tail section is checked in a similar way as the wings, check the static wicks and hinges.

Place all the luggage in the baggage compartment and secure them to the floor with with the provided straps. Verify the weights of the luggage, passengers and fuel on your load sheet and amend as required.

It is good practice to consult the aircaft manual and check if you didn’t skip any pre-flight items items listed.

Engine start and taxi out

Have a seat and get organised. To work tidy is of great importance when it comes to flight safety. Everyone may have his or her preferences, I personally keep documents at hand in a small flight bag and only keep the minimum required paperwork on an A5 size kneepad that I keep in the side pocket with the checklist. Have a pen at hand but keep other loose objects, such as coins, lighters and other FOD to a minimum or keep it in a closed bag.

The start procedure on a controlled airport is slightly different, we focus now on start-up and flight from an uncontrolled aerodrome.

Set the master battery switch, the fuel pump and the beacon light ON.
Open the window and shout ‘clear prop’
Set the mixture Rich and the throttle 5mm open.
Prime between 1x on a warm day or with a warm engine, and up to 4x on a cold day.

Set the magnetos to both and press the start button. Set go as soon as the engine starts or after 10 seconds. wait 30 seconds and prime for a second attempt. Do not do more then 3 start attempts to avoid overheating of the battery and start motor.

When the engine runs, adjust the throttle for 1000 RPM, check for oil pressure. Switch the fuel pump off and check the fuel pressure.

Check the generator load, let the battery recharge a bit until the ammeter shows below 20 Amps, before turning on the electric consumers.

The engine needs a few minutes to warm up. Use the time to do your avionics setup. For today we only need the local com radio frequency to report our intentions and listen for other traffic.

It is possible that the RPM gradually drops during whilst ground ground idling, especially on moist days. This is caused by carburettor icing. The air in the carburettor is significantly colder then the outside air temperature. Carb-Icing can occur almost an any temperature. To prevent this, we need to pull the carb-heat lever. Inlet air is now rerouted via the exhaust muffler and enters the engine at a higher temperature. However, heated carburettor inlet air is not filtered and should be used with caution on the ground.

When the engine is warm, we can taxi to the runway. Turn on the taxi-light or if there is not one installed, the landing light. Release the parking brake by pulling the lever a bit, then push it forward with your thumb. Keep your feet on the brakes for now.

Look outside and confirm it is safe to taxi. Now simply release the brakes and the aircraft starts to roll forward.

The engine run-up

Stop the aircraft at the holding position. Parking brake on, en taxi-light off.
Switch the fuel selector to the right tank, and gently apply power until it reaches 2000rpm. To check the two magneto ignition systems, we select the mag selector (with the key). To Left and observe an RPM drop of not more than 150. Now select the right magneto. This may also be 150 less then 2000, but not more then 75 difference with left.

Set the magnetos to both and pull the carb heat. Observe a slight RPM drop due to the lower density in the warm inlet air. Let it warm up for a few seconds before departure, then Carb-heat off.

Now reduce the throttle to idle, you must be able to reduce the RPM below 1000. Reset 1000 RPM, switch the fuel pump on,
Set the trims correct, test correct operation of the flight controls and complete the before take-off checklist.

Keep a good lookout and report your intentions over the radio before turning onto the runway. Turn on the landing lights, strobe lights and the transponder. Now the aircraft is ready for departure.

The introduction flight will continue in the next exercise, But to stay compliant with EASA I will tell you what to do after landing first.

When clear of the runway, select the flaps up, carb-heat pushed off, fuel pump off, strobes lights and transponder off. (if installed, taxi light on, landing light off)

…and when the aircraft is parked
Parking brake set, 1000rpm, taxi-light off.
Avionics off and mixture idle-cutoff
When the engine has fully stopped:
Magnetos off, beacon light off and battery off.

After the flight, we need to do a few more administrative tasks.

  • Complete the aircraft journal or tech-log entries
    • Write down the take-off and landing times
    • Calculate the flight times and the remaining hours to service
    • Write down any technical issues that have occurred
  • If a safety issue has occurred, file a flight safety report
  • If you had a flight plan filed, confirm that it is closed

This concludes the classroom briefing for exercise 2. Watch the video to see the preparation and start up procedures, the shut-down and post flight procedures.

Now most of the technical and formal stuff is behind us. From now on the focus is mainly on actual flying.

See you soon at Exercise 3! “Air experience”

  • WIP
    • add pictures
    • make video