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PMDG DC6 in x-plane 11

There is at the moment no official x-plane 11 support from PMDG for their DC6 product, only X-plane 10.

However there is a workaround to make it work in Xplane 11.

Step 1: Download and install the DC-6 Base package XPL.exe from the PMDG website.

Step 2: Intsall into Xplane 11, for example:
D:\SteamLibrary\steamapps\common\X-Plane 11

Step 3: fix the reversed rudder animation.

Go to: X-Plane 11\Aircraft\PMDG\DC-6\DC-6A\objects
Open the file pmdg_dc6b_tail.OBJ with notepad

Find the anim_rotate key values near the bottom of the file, and adjust as below
(bold print):

ANIM_begin
ANIM_trans -0.0007 4.2285 16.2842 -0.0007 4.2285 16.2842 0.0 0.0
ANIM_rotate 0.0166 -0.0001 0.0008 1.9008 1.9008 0.0 0.0
ANIM_begin
ANIM_rotate_begin 0.0 1.0 0.0 com/fyc/dc6_958_obj
ANIM_rotate_key 20.0000 -20.0000
ANIM_rotate_key 0.0000 -0.0000
ANIM_rotate_key -20.0000 20.0000
ANIM_rotate_end

Repeat for the same file in D:\SteamLibrary\steamapps\common\X-Plane 11\Aircraft\PMDG\DC-6\DC-6B\objects

Step 4: after loading X-plane and the aircraft, go to the topbar and select Plugins/Enable/Disabpe plugins.

Tick the box at PMDG DC-6.
Only this last step is required after every time Xplane is loaded.

Enjoy the DC6!

 

Credit for the rudder fix:

 

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ZIBO mod for X-plane B737-800

Install guide for the ZIBO mod, a realism enhancement for the Boeing B737-800 in X-plane 11

All credits to the authors of the ZIBO mod!

Download links Here

At the time of writing, 3.34 rc2.21 is the most up-to date version.

In Google drive, download the files:
B737-800X_3_34_rc2.0_full_win_mac.zip
B738X_3_34_rc2.21_win_mac_lin.zip

If the download limit for the files is reached, save a copy of the file to your own google drive and download it from there.

Download the terrain display mod here

To install, go to your xplane install folder and find the default B737 folder:

X:\SteamLibrary\steamapps\common\X-Plane 11\Aircraft\Laminar Research\Boeing B737-800

Make a copy of the folder ‘Boeing B737-800’ and change the name to: ‘Boeing B737-800X‘ and place it in the X-Plane 11\Aircraft folder.

extract and override all files from:
B737-800X_3_34_rc2.0_full_win_mac.zip into the Boeing B737-800X folder
B738X_3_34_rc2.21_win_mac_lin.zip into the Boeing B737-800X folder

Sounds by audiobird are already included in this version and do not to be installed separately.

unzip de content of the TerrainRadar_1_15_1.zip to the aircraft plugin folder:
X-Plane 11\Aircraft\Boeing B737-800X\plugins

Liveries can be found Here
To install a livery, extract the content of the zip file to:
X-Plane 11\Aircraft\Boeing B737-800X\liveries

Start X-plane 11

On the tablet in the captain window, you can go to ‘Configure & Customize’ and set all your preferences.
If you are using hardware thrust levers, I can recommend selecting “A/T Engaged lock throttle”.
Once finished, click on the HOME button and click on the right side of the screen to go to page 2/2. Click on SAVE & LOAD configuration and save your settings for next time.

Hardware setup:

In the bottom of the joystick configuration screen, click the drop down menu next to Active Profile and select Save as a new profile. Name it ZIBO 737.

Recommended joystick buttons:

  • Pitch trim up and Pitch trim down
  • Left TO/GA
  • Left A/T Disengage
  • Captain A/P disengage

6 lever Throttle quadrant if you have one:

  • Throttle 1
  • Throttle 2
  • Reverse 1
  • Reverse 2
  • (unassigned)
  • nose wheel tiller

Enjoy!

Ortho4xp work flow

Ortho4XP will allow you to add photo scenery to x-plane 10 or 11

Work flow for Ortho4XPv120b

  • It is free to use, with thanks to Oscar Pilote
  • Expect a slight FPS performance improvement
  • Overly detailed tiles will use much space on your HD

 

Updated download location for windows users: Here

original Download location here
Alternate download here

Extract the content to a convenient location.

 

Part 1

Start Ortho4XP_v120b.exe
located in \Ortho4XP-master\bin

Base source BI
Base zoomlevel 14

Custom overlay dir:
X:/SteamLibrary/steamapps/common/X-Plane 11/Global Scenery/X-Plane 11 Global Scenery

(don’t select the ‘Earth nav data’ folder)

Open Earth tile map (grey button at the top)

Shift-click all areas required a low-res base map
note: ~200mb per tile

select: Build mask and build overlay

Click: Batch Build

Monitor progress in main screen. Go and grab a coffee (or get some actual sleep!) this might take a while…

ortho

Once finished open the tiles folder
…\Ortho4XP\Tiles

Each tile has a folder like: zOrtho4XP_+27-081

Select all folders (CTRL-A)

In an new window, open the X-plane 11 custom scenery folder
X:\SteamLibrary\steamapps\common\X-Plane 11\Custom Scenery

with the right mouse button, drag and drop the tile folders tot he custom scenery folder, and select ‘create shortcut here’

In the Ortho4XP main folder, find the folder yOrtho4XP_Overlays

Right-mouse drag and drop this folder also to the X-plane 11 custom scenery folder and select ‘create shortcut here’

Start X-plane 11 (the start up screen in enough)

In the X-plane 11 custom scenery folder, open the file scenery_packs.ini with notepad.

All the new scenery tiles are located on the top, they should be on the bottom, so select all Ortho scenery tiles, cut and past to the bottom of the file
(CRTL-X), (CRTL-V)

Locate the entry for yOrtho4XP_Overlays/

Cut and paste this row directly above the /Global Airports/ entry

ortho2

save and close scenery_packs.ini
restart X-plane 11

Go and have a look at the base scenery. If all is well you should see a fairly low-res photoreal ground texture, with overlaying airports, roads and autogen scenery.

This base scenery would look good for a cruise flight level above FL300.

 

Part 2

In the next step we are going to improve the texture quality for all places where you would fly lower, like directly around your airport or perhaps an area of interest for sight-seeing.

In the Ortho 4XP main screen:
Set Base source none.
Ensure Base zoom level is still at 14

Open Earth tile map, double click on the tile you wish to enhance. you should see a yellow selection around it.

Back to the main page, Open Choose custom zoom level

click preview

Select a zoom level under ‘zone params’, the colour indicates how heavy the texture is going to be on your system. I suggest zoom level 17 for a small area around the airport, and level 16 for a wider area around the airport. but that is up to you.

Press shift and left click in the map to add polygons to your selected area. when your zone is done press ‘save zone’ and you can see how much larger your tile is going to be in Gigabytes.

You can add other zones as you please. once finished, click save and exit.
In the Ortho4xp main screen, press ‘Write tile Cfg’.

repeat the process for any other tile.

When you have finished, open the Earth tile map

Hold shift and select the tiles you have edited. they should turn from marked blue to red.

Select: per tile config, use existing mesh, build masks and build overlays.

then Batch Build.

Observe the progress in the main screen, it shouldn’t take too long this time.. unless you went crazy with ultra-high res areas of course 🙂

That is it. Remember when you fly over an area and you are not happy with the zoom level, you can always edit the custom zoom level and re-render the tile.

I’d like to use this opportunity to to say my thanks to the developers of Ortho4XP!

Enjoy photo realistic scenery!

http://www.flightinstructoronline.com

Tu-144 in FSX

Tu-144D “Charger” for FSX

If you think the Concorde was too easy, and you have had your fun with the Tu-154 but, you need a new challenge? Then Tu-144 is for you!

(If you think the Cessna 172 can also be a handful still, well, good luck with this one!!)

20180606104731_1

Just a few words before we start!

I only made this easy step-by-step walk through in English; Soviet-SST tutorial by a western pilot, for western pilots. If you have any credit to give, it’s for the authors of the software, Nikita Konstantinov, Mikhail Mitin, and others.  🙂

If you jumped into deep water and find that your aircraft is broken like:

  • The viewpoint or camera position moves to the ceiling
  • The aircraft tips on its tail and crashes

Come back to this page and RTFM. (I mean kindly read the instructions here)

Aircraft difficulty level for the average western pilot: 11/10

Feedback is appreciated, If you think I am doing it all wrong, please let me know on flightinstructoronline@gmail.com Many thanks!

OK, are you still here? let’s get started!

Download and installation

Download link Dropbox

Original download link (in Russian)

Unzip and start the installer (run as administrator).
You’ll probably see something like this.

Clipboard01

press the highlighted button which means ‘continue’.

On the following screen, copy-paste the FSX installation directory.

Clipboard02

Press enter to to complete the installer.

Download and unzip the file: Hidro_Logik.xml

Dropbox link

Original download location (in Russian)

and replace the existing file in:
…FSX\gauges\Tu-144_nk

This file will fix the aircraft tug-under at trans-sonic speed.

Download the file 3.5.zip for more patchwork

Dropbox link

Original download location (in Russian)

copy and replace:

  • ABSU_Logik.xml into  FSX\gauges\Tu144
  • CVM_logik.xml    into  FSX\gauges\Tu144_CVM
  • CVM_UVI.xml      into  FSX\gauges\Tu144_CVM

 

First time loading the aircraft

Ensure your joysticks are connected and calibrated before starting the simulator.

When loading the aircraft for the first time, you will see a few popups. make sure to press “Run” to all of them and “Yes” to designate the files to trusted software.

Aircraft tips on its tail!

If you you load the aircraft and it wants to tip on its tail, press [Y] for slew control and [F1] to put it back on the ground.

Select from the top bar Aircraft/Fuel and payload/ Change fuel to 45% and [OK] to close the fuel panel.

Then press [S] to switch to inside the aircraft and cycle through the views with [A] to open the 2d panel. This will start the fuel distribution in the background and restore the balance of the aircraft. Now press [Y] again to resume the simulation.

It is a good habit to cycle through all the 2d panels before using the aircraft so that they are loaded and functioning in the background.

View goes up!

If you load up the aircraft and the view goes up, don’t panic it is normal and we are going to fix it.

Press Ctrl-K to disable the joystick.

The Tu-144 has a complex steering logic and therefore the default FSX controls cannot be used and have to be de-activated.

Press [Shift]-[5] to open the ServPribor panel (Joystick setup)

Clipboard05

  • Use the left sector (Джойстик) to select the correct joystick. Try joystick 1.
  • Set the right selector to ось 1 (all the way down).
  • Move the POV-hat in all directions and see if the green indicator lights flashes on,
    • If not, try again with joystick 2, 3 or 4 position, or another axis selection
  • Set the button function selection on ‘поворот головы’ = ‘Turn of the head’
  • Press ‘сохр. кнопки’ = ‘Save button’

You should now be able to look around with the POV-hat switch.

Joystick Axis setup

Lets start by setting up the Pitch axis (elevator up/down)

ensure the upper text box shows [руль высоты], if not: use the scroll wheel to set it.

Select a joystick with the (Джойстик) selector (1,2,3 or 4)

Move your joystick in all directions and through all axis to see if the indicator is moving.
No? try 2, 3 etc.
When the indicator moves, it means you have selected the correct joystick.

With the next selector to the right, select the correct axis. Try X first, Move the joystick pitch axis, if nothing happens, try Y, and so on.
When the indicator moves, you have selected the correct joystick axis.

  • Press the [сохр. ось] button (save axis)

Now repeat for the rudder axis:

  • set the upper text box to: руль направления (Rudder of Direction)
  • select the correct joystick (1,2,3,4)
  • select the correct axis (X,Y,Z) (indicator moves when you move the pedals)
  • Press (сохранить ось) save axis

Also set the joystick axis for:

  • Элероны (Ailerons)
  • управление двиг. (engine control)
  • левый тормоз (left brake)
  • правый тормоз (right brake)

If necessary, you can invert an axis with the [инверт.] switch.

Joystick button setup

To find the correct button, press the button, select a joystick and move the round lever until the green indicator light lights up. Select the required function and press (сохранить кнопки) save button

highlighted are essential, don’t bother with the rest…

  • откл. ап = Autopilot OFF
  • откл. AT = Auto throttle OFF
  • опускание онф = Lowering of nose cone
  • Подъем онф = Raising of nose cone
  • левый тормоз = left brake
  • правый тормоз = right brake
  • триммер РВ вверх = Trim UP
  • триммер РВ вниз = Trim Down
  • поворот головы = Head turn
  • Аварийный тормоз = Emergency brake
  • триммер злев. влево = Trim aileron left
  • триммер злив. вправо = Trim aileron right
  • Штурв. реЖ. по крену = steering pitch (autopilot channel)
  • Штурв. реЖЬ. по тангаЖу = steering pitch (autopilot channel)
  • стаб. боков. канал = autopilot roll channel
  • стаб. продoл. канал = autopilot pitch channel
  • зпу = autopilot heading mode
  • стаб. М/Т = autopilot M/Tt mode
  • стартовый тормоз = Parking brake
  • стаб. V = auto throttle speed hold
  • стаб. H= autopilot altitude hold
  • курс = course mode (nav or loc mode)
  • глисс = glide slope
  • маршрут боков. = FMS lateral autopilot mode (centre button)
  • маршрут продол. = FMS vertical autopilot mode (not functional?)
  • увеличить заданн. = increase preset speed
  • уменьшить заданн = reduce preset speed
  • увеличить зад. тонгаж = increase pitch
  • уменьшить зад. тангаж = reduce pitch
  • разворот влево = turn knob left
  • разворот вправо = turn knob right
  • разворот в нейтрали = turn knob centre
  • <— =  arrow button on the yoke
  • —-> = arrow button on the yoke
  • выпуск пк = release canard
  • уборка пк = clean up canard

Just to name the most relevant

Flight plan

Make a flight plan with no more than 10 points in FSX. This aircraft will fly well above the airways so you can choose direct points. Remember where you save the flight plan.

If you follow my lead, plan UUDD to UAAA via  OGAPO  PNZ  URL  SIVKO  AKB  DZG  TENRO
route distance of 1700NM

You can also use Skyvector to plan a route, download as garmin.fpl file and use Skyvector2fsx_converter to convert it to the FSX file format. There is a small issue; You have to load the flight plan in FSX first, and save it from there, or it won’t work in the MyNL program!

Note” this aircraft is not equipped to fly P-RNAV SIDs or STARs, but you can fly conventional procedures, just don’t bother with them in your flight plan, that is for long range navigation only (B-RNAV)

Download myNL Navigation software

Dropbox link

Original source (in Russian)

Unzip into a folder of choise and run myNL.exe

  • Un-tick boxes for SIDs and STARs
  • Click the green button (Load Flight Plan)
    • select your FSX flight plan
  • Select the tab ту 144
    • Press the green button (Save Tu144 FlightPlan)
    • save the file  to
      • …FSX\Doc_Tu-144D\flightplan.xml
    • Overwrite the existing file, do not rename it!
  • Restart FSX (yes, unfortunately!)
    • the flight plan will be stored in the PNK (FMS) memory next time it is loaded

Fuel calculation

Open \FSX\Doc_Tu-144D\fuelcalc.exe with excel or another spreadsheet editor.

  • Left to right
    • Set trip distance in KM (nautical mile x 1.852)
    • Leave the default of 9000kg
    • Leave the default of Mach 2.00
    • Remember the required fuel in KG.

Note: take some extra fuel if you can, remember the aircraft needs fuel to stay in balance

If you follow my lead, a route of 1700NM = 3200KM, fuel required is 55000kg.

Familiarisation

Press [Shift]-[7] to open the ground services panel.

Open the forward left door with the green button, and request the stairs by pressing on the yellow ‘ТРАП’ button.

Welcome on board! Let’s familiarise with the flight deck.

The 3d ‘virtual cockpit’ has functionality for the main Captain and First Officer controls, and can be used when the aircraft is ready to go. Initially let’s focus on the 2d panels to get started.

In the 2d captain panel, click on the trim indicator in the window post to open the Flight Engineer panel.

From left to right, top to bottom, the panels are as follows:

  • Hydraulics
  • Electrics
  • APU
  • Engine controls for engine 1, 2, 3, 4.
  • On the top right some environmental inciators
  • All the yellow gauges and controls are the fuel system
  • Pneumatic panel can be opened by clicking on the far right edge of the FE panel

On the main panel there are a few more click spots which will be explained later

Preliminary setup

Option 1: The Cheat button

  • [Shift]-[7] to open the ground connections panel
  • Press the magic Avionics cheat button [подгот. пнк]
    • Don’t tell anyone!
  • you can skip option 2 and continue at ‘pre-flight’.

The aircraft is now on external power, the navigation system has been aligned by the ground engineer, and he found your secret stash of vodka, which he took from the aircraft!

Option 2: Avionics setup master class

As captain, you can of course command your engineer to go and iron your epaulettes or something, and take care of the avionics setup your self!

  • On the FE electrical panel, turn on the batteries and guard the switches [АКК] (4x).

If you need some lights, the internal lights selector can be found on the aft overhead panel, second hexagonal knob from the left, top row.

  • switch ON the external power supply [РАП]
  • Switch inverter 2 and 3 on (this connects the DC with the AC electric system)
    • check that the 2 red [сетн от акк] (system on battery) lights extinguish.

FO right arm panel (INS):

  • Set the INS mode selector to вклочь (turn on)
    • (ins selector functions are off/on/align/nav)
  • НК switch UP to heat up the gyros

Allow for ~80 seconds warm up time until the yellow lights come on. [подгот. разреш.] and [пить. подано] (ready permission and flightplan loaded) NC is warmed up and ready to start work. You can also turn of the gyro heater now.

Set the INS mode selector to подгот (prepare). The green light [работа цвм] (working cvm) will illuminate. Do not move the aircraft during alignment, which will take about 30 minutes.

FMS Set current time

  • green button [т тприб]
  • blue button [сброс I] reset line 1
  • type the time for example: 11:41:00 = 11410
  • yellow input button [ввод]

Enter runway threshold coordinates

  • Press green [φ λ] button
  • type blue keys 70 to select the gyros data block
  • blue button [сброс I] reset line 1
  • enter the coordinates for example [с43209] for N43.20.9 ([ю] for south)
  • yellow input button [ввод]
  • repeat for longitude on line 2, [з] for west [в] for east

Check the INS panel at the FO’s right arm rest, once the yellow [нк готов] (NK ready) light is illuminated, you can set the selector to режим нк пуление (operational regime)

 

Pre-flight

Lamp test  [контроль ламп]

  • Lamp test on main panel glare shield
  • Left FE panel (bottom hydraulic panel)
  • Mid FE panel (bottom engine 3 panel)
  • FE Fuel panel (lower fuel panel)
  • Pneumatics panel (bottom right)

On the FE electrical panel,

  • right click on the 4 guarded battery switches [АКК]
    • The guarded  switches now look like a black cover and a white A

On the APU [ВСУ] panel,

  • Flick the 2 switches UP [главы. виклоч] and [запуск ]
    • observe 5 green indicator lights
  • Press and hold the right start button [запуск] until the APU starts
  • After start hold the right toggle switch up for 8 seconds
    • This will open the APU bleed air supply
    • Observe the [готов з запуски] light extinguishes

On the FE electrical panel

  • flight the APU [ВСУ] switch UP
    • Observe the green ‘system on APU’ indicator light illuminates
  • Confirm “rectifiers” (inverters) 2 and 3 ON,
    • The [сетн от акк] lights next to the battery switches should be extinguished
    • Ground power can be released

On the FE pneumatic panel

  • Open the APU bleed air valves [OT ВСУ]
    • Observe pneumatic pressure buildup 3kg/cm
  • Open the Air conditioning Pack valve
  • Set the all the regulators up to automatic [автомат]
    • Observe airflow though the packs
  • Set the temperature selectors to 22c
    • Observe duct temperatures

The aircraft is now powered and Air conditioning is on. Quality of life has just improved!

On the FE Fuel panel,

  • On the top left side open the green cap with the label [краны перекачки закрыты]
  • Flick the 8 switches in the UP position to energise the fuel system
  • Flick up all 14 fuel system switches in the large yellow square

Refuelling:

  • observe the total fuel on board, bottom fuel gauge, hand is marked with a C.
    • at 45% fuel it should indicate 44 ton.
    • we need 55 ton, you can do the maths!
    • be generous and take some extra fuel for the wife and kids 🙂
    • click on the orange centre of the fuel gauge above it to open the refuel panel
    • set the desired uplift fuel, then set the switch UP [пуск]
      • Caution! do not fill to more than 98 ton, this would fill the tail tank. Keep an eye on the CG gauge during refuelling, if the red light illuminates, stop immediately!
      • Ensure the refuel system is switched OFF before closing the panel.

Avionics setup

[Shift]-[2] to open the FMS 2d panel

Set reserve fuel quantity

  1. Un-guard and push red button [ввод днз] (right click, then left click)
  2. Reset first line with blue button [сброс I]
  3. blue keys: 100 (10.00 tonnes) and press “insert” [ввод ]
  4. guard red light after it extinguishes (right click)

01 reserve fuel

Route setup

  1. Set Point/Airport switch to Point [ппм]
  2. Set Program/operational switch UP to [цшелон прогр.]
  3. Set route selector [маршрут] to [ппм]
  4. Press yellow execute [испол нение] button
  5. Set airport selector to 2
  6. Press yellow execute [испол нение] button

Check FMS database coordinates

Note: non-essential, you may skip this step if you want

Quick note on batteries of memory storage cells:

  • 01-30 waypoint coordinates
  • 31-40 operational waypoint
  • 41-48 Airfield coordinates
  • 49 Operational airfield
  • 50 Channel or frequency for operational radio beacon
  • 51-59 Other radio beacon channels and frequencies
  • 79-79 reserved for input codes (70 Gyro, and 72 first and last route waypoint)
  1. Press green [φпм λпм] Button
  2. Blue keys 01
  3. Check coordinates of way point
    • Key 02,03 etc for subsequent way points
  4. Press green [φазр λазр] Button
  5. Blue keys 41 for departure airport
  6. Check coordinates of departure airport
    • Key 42 for arrival airport
  7. Press green [φрм λрм] Button
  8. Blue keys 51 for first correction beacon
  9. Check coordinates of correction beacon
    • Key 52, 53 etc for subsequent beacons

setup automatic sequencing

  1. Press Code [код] button to select a battery of memory cells
  2. Blue keys 72
  3. Reset first line with blue button [сброс I]
  4. Enter the numbers of the first and the last way points
    • Key 0104 for a route with 4 way points
  5. Press Insert [ввод]
  6. Set left upper switch in [ппм] position
    • observe distance to next way point (only if INS is in operational mode)
  7. Set left upper switch in [aзр] position
    • observe distance to destination (only if INS is in operational mode)
  8. Set route selector [маршрут] to [ПРОГР]
  9. Activate with the yellow button that just lit up [испол нение] (execute)

Prepare automatic position update

  1. Press green button [Nрм Nкдн]
  2. type blue keys [51] for the first beacon
  3. Press yellow button [подск]
    • This will show the required NAV frequency or RSBN channel for FMS position update
  • If a VOR frequency is displayed, set that frequency in Nav-1
  • If an RSBN channel is displayed, set that channel in RSBN-1

If done correctly, the yellow Change channel [смени канал] light on the main panel is extinguished

Note: do not proceed before the INS is in operational mode (not applicable if you used the cheat button!)

Before start

On the Captain overhead panel

  • Upper row left to right all switches UP
    • No smoking and Seat belt signs
    • Exit and night lights
    • Window heat
    • Altimeters
  • Second row, set all  switches up
    • various system power

On the FO overhead panel

  • Upper row
    • Window heat low or high
    • beacon and nav lights
    • landing light (up) taxi light (down)
    • something for the gear
  • mid row, set all 4 swithces up
  • lower row, set all 4 switches up and guard

Engine start

Check doors closed, ground equipment clear, park brake set, beacon light ON

  • Set all 4 engine fuel levers on the lower left corner of the FE panel forward, in the run position.

On the FE pneumatic panel

  • Set Packs 1 and 2 OFF
  • Check bleed pressure >3kg/cm

On the FE Fuel panel,

  • Set fuel pump 3 in the down (start) position
    • Observe the green light to indicate fuel pressure

Click on the lower right corner of the FE table to open the engine start panel

  • Set the start selector to engine 3 [баз работает]
  • Flick the Start selector up [главн. выкл.]
    • Observe the red fuel pressure light
  • set the (dry)start switch up [запуск]
    • Observe the green fuel pressure light
  • Press the start button [запуск] to start the engine

When the engine has stabilised

On the FE fuel panel

  • Set the respective fuel pump in the UP (normal) position.

On the FE electrical panel

  • Set the respective generator switch UP
    • Observe red generator light extinguishes

Repeat the start process for engine 4, 2, 1.

On the engine start panel

  • Set the two switches down to shut off the start system
  • close the start panel

On the FE electrical panel

  • Ensure all generators are ON
  • Set all 4 rectifiers ON
    • Observe all red lights are extinguished
  • Set APU and external power to OFF (down)

On the APU panel

  • Close the bleed valve by holding down the toggle switch [закр]
    • Observe the green ready to start light illuminates
  • press the red button to shutdown the APU [останов]
  • Set all the toggle switches down
    • Observe the green indicator lights extinguish

On the FE pneumatic panel

  • Open the 4 engine bleed swithces
  • Set packs 1 and 2 back to ON
    • Observe air flow

On the FE fuel panel

  • Set the large green switch on the bottom in the UP position
    • This will set fuel distribution to automatic

On the FE Engine control panels

  • Set the three switches for each engine UP
    • Observe the yellow manual control lights extinguish [ручное унр. вка.]
    • Observe the red indicator lights extinguish

 

After start

[Shift]-[8] to open autopilot control panel

  • Flick up all 12 switches to extinguish the red lights

Aft overhead panel

  • Close all guarded switches (3x)
  • Unguard the large switch in the middle and flick UP [выпуск]
    • this releases the canard wings

Lower captain panel

  • Set and guard 4 hydraulic power switches

Centre console

  • open green cap [носовой обтекатель]
  • Set nose cone in mid position for take-off
  • Auto throttle switches arm [автомат тяги] 2x

Centre instrument panel

  • Check no-takeoff light is not flashing [к взлету готов]

Main instrument panel

  • Check trim position
  • Check flight control movement

Aft overhead panel

  • Set nose wheel steering to 60 degrees
    • observe: no-take off light will flash on main panels

on the FE fuel panel, or on the CG trim 2d panel set the CG just forward of the aft-limit.

 

Taxi and before take-off

If pushback is required, open ground operations panel with [shift]-[7] and press the yellow button to request a tow truck [вызвать тягач]

Release parking brake [.] and push back [shift]-[p]

When push is complete and equipment released set taxi light ON

use [Shift]-[Enter] to raise seat position and [Ctrl]-[space] to reset

Taxi slowly, when turning, remember that the nose wheel is way behind the cockpit.

Line-up

Once lined up on the runway

  • Nose wheel steering to 8 degrees
    • Observe no-take off light is extinguished
  • Arm brake parachute (open cap) [парашют]

On the FMS

  • Green [код] button
  • blue keys
    • [7][0]
    • Reset line 1 [сброс I]
    • [1]
  • yellow enter key [ввод]
  • set ‘reckoning’  [счисление] switch UP
    • the FMS system will now track your position

Landing lights ON when cleared for take-off

Take-off

Apply full take-off power and accelerate on the runway

Your FO will call the speeds:

“Rubezh” is V1

“Podyem” is Rotate

  • Gently pitch up to 15 degrees ANU.
  • Gear up, set pitch to maintain 450km/h and raise the nose cone.
  • Engage autopilot [бок] and [продол.] button son the yoke, and the auto throttle (V).

the aircraft is in pitch and roll mode. press shift-3 to open the 2d autopilot panel.

Use roll mode to manoeuvre as required, to engage nav-mode

  • on the yoke press the left side of the [МАРШРУТ] route button.
  • press the left arrow for coupling of the lateral mode

When speed up is approved, stow the canard wings [F5] and set the speed bug to match the second line on the speed graph.

Once you have found the pitch to maintain airspeed, engage the autopilot

At this point, engage the auto throttle and set the speed bug to the second line on the speed graph, maintain pitch to stay somewhere between the first and the second line.

Press [Shirt]-[6] to open the trim pop-up and manage the CG trim between the yellow markers. The yellow caution [опровери чентров] will indicate when the CG is out of limits. Caution, failing to do this can be catastrophic.

FMS

  • Press the Green delta Z and Delta S button
  • set switch right of the green buttons to [Непр. Корр.]
    • This is to activate the FMS to continuously update with radio beacons
  • Press yellow input button [ввод]
    • Observe green navigation light on main panel

Whenever the yellow Change channel [смени канал] light on the main panel illuminates, On the FMS:

  • Press green button [Nрм Nкдн]
  • Press yellow button [подск]
    • This will show the required NAV frequency for FMS postion update
      • If it is a VOR frequency, set VOR 1 to this frequency
      • If it is channel, set РСБН 1 to corresponding channel

Correction of positon

  • Confirm

Climb, Cruise, Descend

Trans-sonic acceleration

Going through Mach one will cause your pressure indicators to fluctuate. Maintain Pitch and disconnect auto throttles between Mach .9 and 1.2

Note that on the same dial, the thin needle indicates Mach number, whereas the thick needle indicates TAS in KM/h*1000 (if the needles both point at 1, it is Mach 1 and 1000km/h)

Supersonic flight

Caution, when climbing higher, the acceptable CG band becomes narrower. 45-46% MAC is the normal CG location for supersonic flight.

When approaching Mach 2, monitor the temperature gauge left of the Mach meter and do not accelerate when the temperature goes above 130 degrees C.

to level off, reduce the pitch to zero, press the Mach temperature button to maintain the speed.

FMS alerts

During the flight, the yellow caution [смены канал] will illuminate, this is the change channel alert.

when the green [смена лзп] message illuminates, it means change LZP (waypoint). If waypoint sequencing is not automatic, select the next waypoint on middle selector on the FMS [И ППМ] and press the yellow light below it to execute the command.

Descent

Descent starts about 400km before arrival point

  • set speed hold mode to lower speed limit on the speed graph
  • Lower pitch angle to maintain 10m/s descend
  • Monitor CG and adjust as required
  • Disconnect auto throttle during trans-sonic deceleration

Approach and landing

On centre overhead panel

  • Tune ILS frequency in nav-1
  • set ILS course [курс впп]
  • Set nav selector to up position [курс глисс зпу:]
  • Press the left most push button [подгот. посад] ‘preparation land’
    • Observe 6 Green lights, ILS Cat1 and 2 and vertical and lateral
  • set other radios as required

Speed limit. 450 km/h below 3km. (250 knots below 10000ft)

Set nose cone down to the landing position when required

At 25km DME, speed 400, release canard wings

On intercept heading, reduce to 350km/h

Just before intercepting the glide slope, set Gear down reduce to 300km/h

After touchdown, press [/] to release the brake parachute, land the nose wheel and apply brakes to slow down to taxi speed. press [/] again to release the brake chute.

After landing

  • Press [F6] to stow the canard wings
  • raise the nose to take-off position

On the overhead panel

  • Set nose wheel steering to 60 degrees
  • Set Taxi-lights ON

Taxi to the gate

Taxi slowly onto the stand, set tax-light off in favour of the ground crew.

Set parking brake, raise the nose cone.

On the lower captain panel,

  • Turn OFF 4 hydraulic systems

Turn off the radios and avionics

On the FE panels

  • Switch off air conditioning packs
  • switch off the engine nozzle control
  • Connect external power
  • Switch off all engines with the fuel levers
  • turn off the fuel pumps

On the FO overhead panel

  • Set beacon light OFF

Press [Shift]-[7] to open the ground services panel.

Open the forward left door with the green button, and request the stairs by pressing on the yellow ‘ТРАП’ button.

Thanks for flying Aeroflot, Прощай!

 

Other sources of information:

http://www.sim-outhouse.com/sohforums/showthread.php/86929-Flying-Supersonic-Tu-144-Charger-v3-5

https://www.avsim.su/forum/topic/90090-%D1%82%D1%83-144%D0%B4-faq-%D0%B8-%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%B5-%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B8/

documents translator:
https://www.onlinedoctranslator.com/en/translationprocess

good but lengthy video tutorial p3d

 

FMS alignment master class:

If you decide not to press the magic button, you can pretend to be the engineer and prepare the aircraft yourself!

If you need some lights, the cockpit lights selector can be found on the aft overhead panel, second hexagonal switch from the left, top row.

FO right arm panel (INS):

  • selector to вклочь (turn on) (ins selector off/on/align/nav)
  • НК switch UP to heat up the gyros

Allow for ~80 seconds warm up time until the yellow lights come on. [подгот. разреш.] and [пить. подано] (ready permission and flightplan loaded) NC is warmed up and ready to start work.

set the selector to подгот (prepare) the green light [работа цвм] (working cvm) will illuminate. Do not move the aircraft during alignment, which will take about 30 minutes.

FMS Set current time

  • green button [т тприб]
  • blue button [сброс I] reset line 1
  • type the time for example: 11:41:00 = 11410
  • yellow input button [ввод]

Enter start and end waypoint numbers

  • for 8 waypoints
  • green [код] button
  • set data block 72, blue buttons: 72
  • blue button [сброс I] reset line 1
  • for 01 to 08 type blue buttons: 0108
  • yellow input button [ввод]

Enter runway threshold coordinates

  • (not required because it is already in the filed flight plan)
    • Press green [φАЗР λАЗР] button
    • type blue keys 41 to select the first airport data block
    • blue button [сброс I] reset line 1
    • enter the coordinates for example [с43209] for N43.20.9 ([ю] for south)
    • yellow input button [ввод]
    • repeat for longitude on line 2, [з] for west [в] for east
  • Note, you can add the coordinates for your alternates in data block 43-49

Select landing airport

  • airport 2 in the flight plan
    • set selector азродром посл дки to 2
  • confirm with yellow push button below it

Check the INS panel at the FO’s right arm rest, if the yellow [нк готов] (NK ready) light is illuminated, you can set the selector to режим нк пуление (operational regime)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

translate legend Tu-144 FSX navigation.ru.en.docx

panel BI = FE panel

PPC panel = FO right arm in VC

MRP = intermediate waypoint

 

 

 

 

 

 

DCS world

Scope:

Digital Combat Simulator World 2.5 can be the most realistic and satisfying combat flight simulator you have seen to date. It can also be an arcade game, depending on how you set it up. This quick-start guide will help you setting up DCS world as a simulator and get you airborne in no-time.

DCS comes with two free aircraft

  • The Su-25T
  • The TF-51D

Both aircraft are excellent to try out the sim and learn how to use it.

  • The Sukhoi has somewhat simplified aircraft controls, but has its focus on a wide range of weapon and detection systems.
  • The P51 Mustang has no weapons, but features a complex flight model and interactive 3d cockpit.

Payware add-on aircraft come in various levels of detail and complexity. Each aircraft comes with excellent documentation, some of them are extremely well simulated and have fully authentic systems.

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Requirements:

Setup (basic)

After the program has started, on the top click on the gear symbol to open settings.

Select the tab “CONTROLS”

On the left top, select the box that says ALL and click on Axis Commands

  • Double click on the ‘Pitch’ box under the joystick that you use to fly the aircraft
    • Move your joystick pitch axis fully up and down
    • In the Key / Button field you’d expect to see something like JOY_Y or similar.
    • Then press OK

Now the important bit! If you have more than one joystick, make sure the pitch value for all the other joysticks are blank. If not, left click on a box and click the ‘Clear’ button on the bottom.

Repeat this process for the roll, yaw and Thrust.

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Note: If you have two separate thrust levers, leave the ‘Thrust’ field empty and set ‘Thrust Left’ and ‘Thrust Right’ instead

On the top bar, select the box that now says ‘Axis Commands’ and select ‘Search…’

in the search box type ‘trim’

  • Double click on the ‘Trim: Nose Up’ box under the joystick that you like to use
    • Click on the RESET button
    • Then press the appropriate joystick button
    • Click OK
  • Repeat for trim down

If you have a spare button you can also assign one for ‘Wheel Brake On’

To change a keyboard command, follow the same procedure,

  • Search for ‘Dragging Chute’
  • Select the box under keyboard
  • Press the ‘Clear’ button
  • Double click the box
    • Press [Right Ctrl]+[P]
    • Press ‘OK’
  • Thank me later!
    • (Every time you think to pause the sim, you’d have lost the brake chute :P)

Here is another tricky one: If you want to save your joystick profile:

  • You have to select a box (left click on any) under your joystick.
  • Click the ‘Save profile as’ button
    • Give your file a name like FIOjoystickprofile01.diff.lua
    • press OK

There is no need yet to setup all buttons for weapons and other things yet. You can do that later when you know which ones you are likely to use more often.

Select the tab “GAMEPLAY”

  • In the lower right corner click the ‘Simulation’ button
  • Tick the box ‘Mirrors’ ON

select the tab “AUDIO”

  • Tick all 4 boxes ON

Select the tab “MISC.”

  • Tick Head Movement by G-Forces in Cockpit
    • Leave the rest as it is or set as you prefer

Select the tab “SPECIAL”

  • Select the TF-51D
  • Set the take-off assistance slider to zero.

Press OK to return back to the main menu

Flying the Frog foot

This Russian ground attack aircraft is a good way to get acquainted with combat flying.

Unlike the more advanced aircraft in DCS, the buttons in the 3d cockpit of this aircraft cannot be controlled with the mouse, and hence you will need to operate the systems of this aircraft with keyboard or joystick buttons.

May I suggest taking a pen and paper at hand and make notes of the required key combinations whilst playing the training missions. It is of course also possible to change keys and assign joystick buttons by pressing [Esc] and find the ‘ADJUST CONTROLS’ section

20180610204605_1

Start and Take-off

You are now all setup for the first training mission.

  • On the right of the screen, click TRAINING
  • Select the Su-25T and mission “Aircraft Start-Up, Taxi, and Takeoff
  • Thoughtfully ignore the mission briefing and click FLY

Follow the verbal instructions until you are airborne, then go and have some fun trying out the “Grach”.

Flight safety notes:

  • When you hear a buzzing sound before taxiing, just ignore it, it is the stall warning.
  • Unlike the instructor says, taxi-speed is not shown on the Heads Up Display [HUD]

Once you are done (or dead) press [Esc] and ‘Quit’.

Approach and Landing

The Basic Flight Controls and Navigation session is basically an exercise of fly through boxes. Just skip that one and carry on with ‘Landing-Easy’

Safety notes:

  • Look active and awake during the first 5 minutes of talk about the instruments
  • Basically follow the yellow RMI on the HSI to way point 3.
  • After way point 3 it shows 17, that’s airport 17 and you can follow the HUD
  • It will automatically switch to ILS once intercepted
    • Keep the large and the small circle aligned on the HUD
    • Crosscheck with the analogue  flight director bars
  • Land a bit faster than the bloke tells you. about 280 should do
  • Use the brake chute immediately after Touchdown!
    • Landing without brake chute is extremely difficult due to poor stability
    • Avoid using nose wheel steering at high speed, keep wings level at all times.

20180609220055_1

The ‘landing-Difficult’ mission is pretty much the same but in bog weather.

Runway and approach lights are off by default. If you ask ATC nicely they might turn them on at their own peril. press the [\] key to initiate ATC comms.

To avoid confusion, when the instructor says there is no ‘Russian ILS’. In practice basically you don’t have flight director bars or a HUD, but you will get a localizer glide slope kinda presentation on the HSI. Basically a Raw data approach into the dark, good luck!

20180610011118_1

Weapons training

OK; remember the nice, powerful and agile little jet that you just flew?

That’s baby’s gone once you have external stores on. Now you fly an overweight, under powered, draggy sluggish pregnant goose.

Keep the speed up and try to approach the green gates slightly from above, if you miss any you have to turn around to hit it again. With stores on you can barely reach corner velocity in straight and level flight, which means you fly 45 degree angle of bank turns with full power like a Cessna 152.

Safety notes:

  • Bombs go with a bang, stay out of the blast!

20180609233331_1

Enjoy the training missions and learn all about the different armament and sensors. Configure your joystick keys as you go.

The quick reference guide is meant to refresh your memory if you haven’t played for a while.

Once you have completed all the training scenarios, try the ground attack mission before going all-in multiplayer.

Try the TF-51D for some proper stick and rudder flying and and a bit deeper system simulation.

I hope this was helpful in any way, Blue skies!

FIO

 

 

20180610205726_1
Post mission BBQ

 

Su-25T Quick reference:

Mouse look

By default you use the mouse to look around. Press LAlt-C to turn it off

Weapon status panel

  • РАБОТА – Weapon type
    • /////// – No weapon selected
    • нрс – Rockets, press [d] to cycle
    • б      – Bombs, Press [d] to cycle
    • впу – Canon, press [c] to select
  • Orange pylon marker – Weapon available
  • Green pylon marker – Weapon selected

Navigation

  • [1] to cycle HUD navigation modes
    • enroute
    • terminal
    • approach

Air to ground

Unguided bombs

  • [7] Air to ground HUD
  • Weapon setup:
    • [D] Cycle through various bombs.
      • HUD will display опт змл (optical targeting) and б (bomb)
    • [Ctrl]+[Space] number of bombs in salvo
    • [v] salvo interval in seconds: .1 .2 .3 .4 or залп (all at once)
  • CCIP Continuous Calculated Impact point
    • Dive at ~40 degrees a target
    • In the HUD, aim the green pipper over the target,
      • observe that it connects to a vertical line
    • пр in the HUD means you can release release the weapon
  • CCRP Continious Calculated Release Point
    • Aim the pipper at the target, press and hold the fire button
    • Fly level over the target, the bomb should release at the correct time

Sub-munitions

  • [7] Air to ground HUD
  • Weapon setup:
    • [D] Cycle through various weapons.
      • HUD will display кмг (KMG)
    • [Ctrl]+[Space] number of dispensers in salvo
    • [v] set серия кмгу-мвд (Special for sub-munitions)
  • Release CCIP or CCRP, fly low and fast, aim slightly before the target

Air to ground rockets:

  • [7] Air to ground HUD
  • Weapon setup:
    • [D] Cycle through various weapons.
      • HUD will display с5 or any other rocket type
      • Weapon panel will show нрс (rockets)
  • Aim the HUD pipper at the target,
  • The left vertical bar shows range,
  • Fire when пр appears on the HUD

Air to ground cannons:

  • [7] Air to ground HUD
  • [C] Canon mode
  • [Ctrl]+[Space] to switch modes
    • no.1 1x Internal 30mm cannon
    • no.2 2x external 23mm gunpods angled (observe green light)
    • no.4 4x external 23mm gunpods angled (observe green light)
    • все (All) – 4x external 23mm gunpods bore sight position (no green light)
  • RCtrl and ] to depress the barrels (decrease range)
  • RCtrl and [ to raise (increase range)

TV Guided bombs

  • [7] Air to ground HUD
  • [O] to turn Shkval sensor ON
    • HUD shows тв (tv)for range
  • [,][/][.][;] to move sensor, [RCtrl]+[i] to reset
  • [=] and [-] to switch between 8x and 23x magnification
  • [Enter] to ground stabilise the sensor
    • Display shows кс and seconds weapon flight time
  • Change target box size [RCtrol]+[[] and [RCtrol]+[]]
    • Once locked АС will be displayed

Radar warning receiver and counter measures

  • Radar Warning Receiver
    • Dashed line is thread range
    • outer blips primary thread direction
    • Inner green blibs secondary thread
    • Above and below indicators in the centre
    • Thread types:
      • Π = Fighter aircraft radar or active missle radar
      • 3 = Long range SAM
      • X = Medium range SAM
      • H = Short range SAM
      • F = Ground based early warning radar
      • C = AWAC’s
    • [Rshift]+[R] RWR filter
    • [Ralt]+[.] and [,] RWR volume up/down
  • [E] ECM (Electronic Counter Measure?)
    • сап on HUD
  • [LShft]+[E] IR jammer
    • созп on HUD
  • [insert] Chaff
  • [Delete] Flare
  • [i] Fantasmagoria pod
    • 58 in HUD Kh-58U anti radar missile 120km range

Air to Air Missiles (IR)

  • [6] Air to Air HUD
  • [D] Weapon select
    • R-60M 8km range
    • R-73 30km range

 

 

Bulls eye position report

Bulls eye is the format used to report your position, and to receive a position from the radar controller in ‘BRA’ (Bearing Range Altitude) from waypoint 1.

For example

“SkyEye this is Dutchman, Bullseye 240 for 65 metrics 5”

  • SkyEye is the Awac, Dutchman is my call-sign,
  • Bearing – 240 from the bulls eye
  • Range – 65km from the bullseye
  • Altitude – 5000 metre

To interpret the data set the HUD to en route navigation and have way point 1 active

 

 

  • Set the HUD to enroute navigation,
  • waypont 1 as the actie waypoint [LCtrl]+[`]
  • Consider the middle of the HSI the bulls eye.
  • You are at the tail of the RMI needle.

Weapon systems control panel (Left main panel)

Canon mode

  • Right dial [Lctrl]+[space]
    • no1 залп – Salvo фикс (internal 30mm cannon)
    • no2 фикс – 2 active gun pods
    • no4 фикс – 4 active gun pods
    • все (All) –
  • Barrel angle [RCtrl]+[[] Up and [RCtrl]+[]] down

 

Heads up Display

Keys 1-9 select different modes.

  • 1) Navigation (cycle through modes)
    • мрш  En route navigation
    • взв   Arrival
    • пос  Approach
  • 6) Missile aiming
  • 7) Air to ground
    • опт змл (optical targeting)
    • впу = Internal 30mm Canon [4] indicates 4/4 ammo remaining. [3] is 3/4 etc.
    • ппу = Canon pods 23mm at 3000 rpm.
  • 8) Gun sight

 

How I have re-mapped my keys:

  • [RCtrl]+[P] for dragging parachute
  • POV hat for moving sensor (tv/laser) to replace [,][/][.][;]
  • [Insert] and [page up] to change target box on tv
  • numlock for moving head position

 

 

External links:

Default keyboard layout

 

 

Exercise 3, Air experience: flight exercise

Exercise 3, Air experience: flight exercise

The introduction flight

That is enough theory for one day, now we are just going to make a short, 30 minute, familiarisation flight. During this flight I will be doing most of the work. I will be talking to ATC every now and then, and I talk about what I am doing.

The routing for today is to fly the ‘standard VFR departure’ out of Glasgow, via the south bank of the river clyde, Dumbarton and Alexandria, and the ‘standard arrival’ which is in the opposite direction via the north bank, to land back in Glasgow on runway 23.

Desktop Screenshot 2017.12.15 - 23.39.41.15

After take-off I will trim the aircraft for straight and level flight and give the controls to you. I will do this by saying “Your controls”. After you reply with “My controls”, you have the aeroplane.

All we are going to do is fly straight and level, and perhaps if that goes well I’ll let you do a few turns. You can’t do anything wrong, I’ll be ready to take over at any time.

When I say “My controls”, you take your hands and feet off the controls and let me fly the aeroplane again, and you reply by saying “your controls”.

Do you have any questions so far? Are you ready? Let’s go!

AIS information for Glasgow airport is available here
Piper Tomahawk abbreviated Checklist (use at own discretion)

 

OK, we are in the Aeroplane, All the pre-flight checks are complete, a flight plan has been filed, the tech-log signed, and the aircraft is positioned so we can taxi out safely.
But before we start I will give you a short safety briefing:
Make sure that your seat belts and harness are fastened throughout the flight.
Should the need arise to quickly evacuate the aeroplane, you can can release the seat belt by lifting the buckle.
The easiest way to shut down the engine is to pull the red mixture leaver all the way down. The engine should stop within a few seconds.
To open the door, open the latch on the top first, than lift the door handle. Beware of the propeller in the front of the aircraft.
Do you have any questions?
 BAT switch on, radios on, I will ask start clearance to ATC.
“Glasgow Ground, G-FIOL”
G-OL pass your message”
“Piper 38 on Whiskey Apron, information Charley, request startup, 20 minute local flight, standard departure followed by a standard arrival. G-OL”
“G-OL start up approved, Information Charley correct, QNH 1021, standard exit not above 2000ft, report ready for taxi”
“Start up approved, QNH 1021, Standard departure not above 2000ft, wilco G-OL”
Radios off, ANTI COLL LIGHT ON, Before start checks:
Before start checks complete,
Prime 1, prime 2, leave the primer open. Throttle half inch, Mixture rich, fuel pump ON
outside area is clear “CLEAR PROP!”
Starter engage, close primer and lock. count for ten seconds.
Engine is ON, adjust to 1000RPM, oil pressure checked.
Alternator ON, fuel pump OFF
Avionics ON, set transponder code 7000
Set DG to compass heading
Set Altimeter
Inhg conversion
Request taxi:
“G-OL, request taxi”
“G-OL Taxi via Whiskey to holding point Yankee 1 for runway 23”
“Via Whiskey to Yankee 1 for runway 23, G-OL”
Landing light ON (Or taxi-light if you have one)
Note time departure time on your kneeboard
Outside clear, Check brakes and steering
taxi to holding point, position into wind
parking brake on, 1000 rpm, taxi light OFF
Engine run-up and before Before takeoff checks
“G-OL, ready for departure taxi”
“G-OL, via Yankee 1, line-up and wait runway 23”
“via Yankee 1, line-up and wait runway 23 G-OL”
Lookout for traffic, Transponder ON (see and be seen!)
Line up with the runway, confirm runway heading with Gyro compass
“G-OL, the wind is 300/8, runway 23 cleared for take-off, left turn out”
“runway 23 cleared for take-off, left turn out G-OL”
Landing light ON, memorise take-off time (don’t write it down!)
Stabilise engine, check T’s and P’s. brake release
Expect to give right rudder for the P-effect
Keep tracking the centre line, keep the wings level.
rotate at 53, accelerate to 70 and trim.
At 1500ft, Attitude Power Trim to level off
Ok I will talk you though it are you ready? “your control”
Keep the attitude of the aeroplane just as it is, by making small adjustments in up or down, by raising or lowering the nose of the aeroplane. and keeping the wings level.
To turn the aircraft, gently bank to the left or right and keep the nose on the horizon at the same time.
follow the M8 untill we pass dumbarton, follow the river leven to Alexandrie
“Tower, G-OL, passing Alexandria, request rejoin via standard entry”
“G-OL, approved, clearance limit is Erskin bridge, not above 2000ft.”
“Cleared to rejoin, Limit is Erskin bridge not above 2000ft, G-OL”
Make a 180 turn to the right over Alexandria return Dumbarton. There turn left, follow the north bank of the Clyde to the Erskin bridge.
Desktop Screenshot 2017.12.15 - 23.38.44.30
“G-OL, number one, report final runway 23”
“Wilco G-OL”
After the Erskin bridge, descent to 700ft along the north bank of the river clyde.
Reduce power to ~1500 RPM, set carb heat ON.
Before the base turn, reduce the speed to 80 knots.
When the speed is below 89, set flaps 21 degrees (first notch)
“G-OL, final runway 23”
“G-OL, Wind is 240/7, runway 23 cleared to land”
“23 cleared to land G-OL”
On final, reduce speed to 70 and set flaps 34 degrees (flaps down)
complete the landing checklist
Fly the aircraft until you are just a couple of inches above the centreline. reduce the power to idle and try to stay in the air for a few seconds to bleed of some speed. after about two seconds, hold the pitch attitude and let the plane settle down on the runway.
Always land the main wheels first, keep the nose wheel about an inch off the ground for about a second, then let it settle down softly. keep a light back pressure until you are at taxi-speed.
Be gentle on the brakes, there is no anti-skid and you don’t want to lock the wheels.
“G-OL, vacate to the right, taxi to the club, monitor ground on 121.7”
“to the right, monitor 121.7 G-OL Cheerio!”
After vacating the runway, set flaps UP, Fuel pump OFF, transponder ON, remember the landing time.
Taxi back and park into wind if possible.
Set 1000 RPM, parking brake set, landing light OFF
Switch off the Avionics,
Magneto dead cut
Set idle power, then mixture off.
When the engine is off, magnetos off, ANTI COLL LIGHT OFF,
BAT and ALT switch OFF
Note the landing and on-blocks time and tacho
consult the post landing notes on the checklist.
Let’s secure the aircraft, and then go inside for a coffee and a de-brief. Do you remember how to open the door?

De-briefing

So, this was exercise 1a. Have you enjoyed it as much as I did? I sincerely hope so. So a quick review of what we have done.
We have familiarised with the aeroplane and some of its characteristics, and some of the most essential items in the cockpit.
After a quick safety brief, we started the engine and prepared the systems for flight.
The best way to operate an aeroplane is to do everything from memory, and then use the checklist to make sure you didn’t forget any critical items.
You may also have noticed that I had to obtain clearances from ATC from time to time, that is because this is a controlled airport.
But even though we received a clearance to line up, we had a good lookout before entering the runway. This is an example of good airmanship. We are working with humans and humans make mistakes. but as long as we stay vigilant we can keep flying safe.
After a quick engine check we took off, and climbed to an altitude of about 1500ft.
To level off in the cruise, the Mnemonic was Attitude, Power Trim. So first the nose of the aircraft was lowered into the cruise attitude, the power reduced and the control forces balanced out with the trim.
To make a turn, we have a good lookout first, and then all we have to do is gently bank the aircraft to the direction we want to go, and keep the nose of the aircraft on the horizon. A little bit of back pressure on the yoke is required to prevent the aircraft from losing altitude.
To start the descent, the mnemonic is Power, Attitude, trim. reduce the power, set the nose in the descent attitude and trim the control forces away.
Then we landed back on runway 23 and taxied back to our GA apron.
I can imagine that the first time flying a light aeroplane can be a bit intense, and that you may not remember everything perfectly for the next flight, but that is normal. For this reason specifically, exercise 1 is split into A and B, and exercise 1B is almost an exact repetition of what we have done today.

Homework

before the next session:
In review of today’s flight, have a look at the POH, casually read though chapter 7 and the expanded procedures in chapter 4.

Also have a look at chapter 3, the emergency procedures. For now it is sufficient to glance through it, a deeper study will be required before exercise 14.
Piper Tomahawk POH is available here
In the next exercise we shall have a look at the primary and secondary effects of all the flight controls. If you are keen, have a look at the effects of the ailerons, elevator, rudder, the flaps and the pitch-trim.
I hope you have enjoyed the whole experience, If you have any burning questions, feel free to ask. Thank you for flying with me today and I hope to see you soon for the next flight.

Exercise 1a: Familiarisation with the aeroplane

EASA requirements:
 Exercise 1a: Familiarisation with the aeroplane:
 (A) characteristics of the aeroplane;
 (B) cockpit layout;
 (C) systems;
 (D) checklists, drills and controls.

 

Although it is not necessary to complete the entire PPL-theory course before we can start flying, we still need to have a basic understanding of how the aeroplane and it’s systems work.

Flight training can be done with almost any light aeroplane with two or more seats, and there are many to choose from. Initially it doesn’t matter much which one you choose. During this course we shall have a look at a few types and their differences.

We shall start with one of the most common of all trainers:

The Piper Tomahawk II

Specifically designed for flight training, almost 2500 were built between 1977 and 1982. Many flying clubs and -schools still use the Tomahawk today, because of it’s reliability and low operating cost.

From an instructing point of view, I particularly like its flying characteristics. Where most light trainers are build ‘extra’ stable to make it easier to fly, the Tomahawk requires proper pilot input, which makes it easier to see when you fly it the correct way, and also when you make a mistake.

In contrary to most other two-seat trainers, the Tomahawk is designed so that it does not recover from a spin without pilot input. But when the proper input is given, it will.

Note also that the Tomahawk has a better safety record than similar types.

The Tomahawk II variant has a few minor improvements, most notably the larger tires, giving a better propeller clearance, and better heating and soundproofing in the cabin.

Everything you need to know about this aeroplane is described in the POH, or Pilot’s Operating Handbook. It is a requirement for the Pilot of Command to study this manual before flight. But before you do that, let me show you some the most relevant features.

The X-plane model I am using for this class is available on Alabeo.com and the .org store

Airframe

It is an all metal (aluminium) fuselage with a ‘monocoque’ construction, which means that the strength and rigidity comes from the outer skin. Before every flight we do a “walk around” to check the airframe for damage.

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Cabin

The cabin has two doors, two seats with seatbelts and harness, and dual controls. Compared to other two-seat trainers, the cabin is spacious and there is an excellent view outside.

Wings and control surfaces

The wing is designed by NASA, specifically to give the Tomahawk its flying characteristics. On the leading edge, a pair of stall strips were installed in 1983, to make the aeroplane compliant with the new certification rules and improve its spin recovery.

It has a low-wing design. As opposed to a high wing, this provides a much better visibility for the pilot, especially in turns. Low wing aeroplanes are in principle less stable than those with a high wing, but to counter this problem, the wings of the Piper-38 are mounted in a shallow V shape. This is called a dihedral wing and increases the roll stability.

The flight controls are conventional, and connected through a cable system.

The flaps are on the inner trailing edge. They are also controlled mechanically with a Johnson bar between the pilot seats.

The flaps are normally in the UP position. They can be extend by pulling the Johnson bar between the pilots.

  • Flaps UP, gives the least drag.
  • Flaps 21° (first notch) increase both lift and drag, good for a short field takeoff
  • Flaps 34° (DOWN) Increases drag, to improve speed stability for landing.

The stall speed is only 3 knots lower with fully extended flaps.

The tomahawk has a T-tail. This design feature places the elevator outside of the prop-wash which reduces vibration in the control yoke.

control surfaces.png

Engine

The Lycoming O-235 is an air cooled, 4 cylinder piston engine which drives a two blade fixed pitch propeller. It delivers 112 HP at 2600 RPM.

Like most aircraft engines, it has twin spark plugs in each cylinder which are powered by a magneto system, making the engine completely independent from the electrical system.

There is a carburetor heat system to prevent ice forming on the throttle valve, and a mixture control to lean the mixture when flying at higher altitudes.

360

Landing gear

A tricycle, fixed landing gear supports the aeroplane the ground. The two main wheels have hydraulic disk brakes that can be operated independently. The nose wheel  has air-oil type suspension. It is steerable via a torque link, which is connected to the rudder pedals in the cockpit

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Cockpit layout

In the cockpit we find: Seats, yokes, rudder pedals and toe brakes, flap handle, 2 doors with lower and top latches, throttle, mixture, carb-heat, magnetos and a few other items.

The avionics can differ a bit in every other aeroplane. The basic instruments that must always be available for flying in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) are:

“Airspeed, Altitude, magnetic compass, RPM indicator and engine instruments and fuel quantity gauges”

Everything else is optional. Let’s have a quick look at what we have in our Tomahawk.

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  • the primary flight instruments, or “basic 6”.
    • the ASI (Air Speed Indicator) indicates IAS (Indicated Airspeed), it is measured with the pilot-static probe under the left wing.
    • The Attitude Indicator (AI) is a suction driven, gyroscopic instrument. It presents an artificial horizon and is required for flying in reduced visibility.
    • The Altitude indicator translates barometric pressure into feet. The sub-scale needs to be set to the local pressure (QNH) setting to indicate altitude above mean sea level. In the States, Inch-Hg is used, in Europe Hpa. see conversion table.
    • The turn indicator is an electric powered gyroscopic instrument and shows us the turn rate. The skid ball is a ball in a glass tube filled with oil and shows turn coordination.
    • The Heading indicator is a suction driven gyroscopic instrument. If set correctly it indicates the direction or ‘heading’ of the aircaft, and is easier to read than the magnetic compass.
  • The other instruments on the main panel are for radio navigation and will be explained in a later exercise.
  • Engine instruments
    • RPM is the rotational speed of the propeller and is a good indication of produced engine power.
    • Exhaust temperature can give us information about the fuel/air mixture ratio.
    • Oil temperature and pressure gauges are an indication of the ‘health’ of the engine.
  • The Ampere and suction gauges show the status of the two systems that power the flight and navigation instruments
  • Fuel quantity gauges should indicate if there is fuel in the tanks, and an estimate of how much.

Image: Altimeter setting conversion table

Inhg conversion
Electrical system

The electrical system is powered by an engine driven alternator and a 12v battery.
It feeds all internal and external lights, the pitot heat, the stall warning system, the electric starter motor, the electric fuel pump, the radio’s and some of the flight instruments. Electrical switches can be found on the lower side of the main panel, the circuit breakers are on the right hand panel.

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Vacuum system

The vacuum system is powered by an engine driven vacuum pump. It supplies suction power for some of the gyroscopic instruments, like the artificial horizon and the heading indicator. The system is independent from the electrical system to create redundancy.

The Pitot-static system

The airspeed indicator, altimeter and the vertical speed indicator are connected to the pitot-static system. On the bottom of the left wing you will find the pitot probe. On the aft fuselage you can find the static ports. The Pitot probe is heated to prevent blockage in icing conditions or heavy rain.

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Stall warning system

On the left wing leading edge of the wing you can find the stall warning sensor. When the wing approaches the critical angle of attack, the metal tab will be lifted by the relative airflow and a micro switch activates a buzzer in the cockpit to alert the pilot.

Carburetor heat system

The carburetor is connected to the engine, this is where air and fuel is mixed and regulated by the throttle valve to set the required power setting.

In normal operation, air enters the carburetor via the air filter. Either when the filter is blocked, or when ice forms on the throttle valve, the engine will loose power.

By selecting the carburetor heat ON, the outside air bypasses the filter and is routed past the exhaust muffler. As long as the exhaust is hot, the air warms up and prevents ice buildup.

Fuel system

The engine runs on ‘Avgas 100LL’ which is Low-Lead Aviation petrol. It is stored in two wing-mounted tanks of 15 US gallons of usable fuel each.

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A fuel selector control is located in the centre of the engine control quadrant. It can be set on the left or right tank or OFF. Fuel is pumped to the engine with an engine driven fuel pump. An additional electrical fuel pump is installed for redundancy. It should be ON for take-off and landing, and when switching the tanks.

Fuel pressure gauge, and primer are on the right panel.

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3 fuel drains, one under each tank wing tank, and one by the fuel strainer, should be opened daily and fuel checked for water or other contaminant.

A detailed description of all systems can be found in section 7 of the POH.

Checklists, drills and procedures

A procedure is a sequence of handlings that are common to a certain phase of flight.

Some procedures are quite casual, like the setup of the radios before the flight. You can do them in any order you like, as long as they are done.

Other procedures require a strict order. As an example:
For parking the aeroplane: the drill is: Parking brake SET, 1000 RPM, Landing light OFF.
When levelling off after a climb: Power, Attitude, trim.

In most cases we operate the aeroplane completely from memory, but to err is human so we need a checklist to make sure that all critical items are set correctly.

There are normal, abnormal and emergency checklist, procedures and drills.
All Emergency procedures are described in section 3, and all normal procedures in section 4 of the POH.

Note that the  ‘normal checklist’ in chapter 4 is actually the normal procedures. Most operators have made their own, abbreviated checklist for daily use. you can find the link to my variant here.

 

The introduction flight

That is enough theory for one day, now we are just going to make a short, 20 minute, familiarisation flight. During this flight I will be doing most of the work. I will be talking to ATC every now and then, and I will tell you a little bit about what I am doing.

The routing for today is the ‘standard departure’ via the south bank of the river clyde, Dumbarton and Alexandria, and the ‘standard arrival’ which is in the opposite direction via the north bank, to land back in Glasgow on runway 23.

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After take-off I will trim the aircraft for straight and level flight and give the controls to you. I will do this by saying “Your controls”. After you reply with “My controls”, you have the aeroplane.

All we are going to do is fly straight and level, and perhaps if that goes well I’ll let you do a few turns. You can’t do anything wrong, I’ll be ready to take over at any time.

When I say “My controls”, you take your hands and feet off the controls and let me fly the aeroplane again, and you reply by saying “your controls”.

Do you have any questions so far? Are you ready? Let’s go!

AIS information for Glasgow airport is available here
Piper Tomahawk abbreviated Checklist (use at own discretion)

 

OK, we are in the Aeroplane, All the pre-flight checks are complete, a flight plan has been filed, the tech-log signed, and the aircraft is positioned so we can taxi out safely.
But before we start I will give you a short safety briefing:
Make sure that your seat belts and harness are fastened throughout the flight.
Should the need arise to quickly evacuate the aeroplane, you can can release the seat belt by lifting the buckle.
The easiest way to shut down the engine is to pull the red mixture leaver all the way down. The engine should stop within a few seconds.
To open the door, open the latch on the top first, than lift the door handle. Beware of the propeller in the front of the aircraft.
Do you have any questions?
BAT switch on, radios on, I will ask start clearance to ATC.
“Glasgow Ground, G-FIOL”
G-OL pass your message”
“Piper 38 on Whiskey Apron, information Charley, request startup, 20 minute local flight, standard departure followed by a standard arrival. G-OL”
“G-OL start up approved, Information Charley correct, QNH 1021, standard exit not above 2000ft, report ready for taxi”
“Start up approved, QNH 1021, Standard departure not above 2000ft, wilco G-OL”
Radios off, ANTI COLL LIGHT ON, Before start checks:
Before start checks complete,
Prime 1, prime 2, leave the primer open. Throttle half inch, Mixture rich, fuel pump ON
outside area is clear “CLEAR PROP!”
Starter engage, close primer and lock. count for ten seconds.
Engine is ON, adjust to 1000RPM, oil pressure checked.
Alternator ON, fuel pump OFF
Avionics ON, set transponder code 7000
Set DG to compass heading
Set Altimeter
Inhg conversion
Request taxi:
“G-OL, request taxi”
“G-OL Taxi via Whiskey to holding point Yankee 1 for runway 23”
“Via Whiskey to Yankee 1 for runway 23, G-OL”
Landing light ON (Or taxi-light if you have one)
Note time departure time on your kneeboard
Outside clear, Check brakes and steering
taxi to holding point, position into wind
parking brake on, 1000 rpm, taxi light OFF
Engine run-up and before Before takeoff checks
“G-OL, ready for departure taxi”
“G-OL, via Yankee 1, line-up and wait runway 23”
“via Yankee 1, line-up and wait runway 23 G-OL”
Lookout for traffic, Transponder ON (see and be seen!)
Line up with the runway, confirm runway heading with Gyro compass
“G-OL, the wind is 300/8, runway 23 cleared for take-off, left turn out”
“runway 23 cleared for take-off, left turn out G-OL”
Landing light ON, memorise take-off time (don’t write it down!)
Stabilise engine, check T’s and P’s. brake release
Expect to give right rudder for the P-effect
Keep tracking the centre line, keep the wings level.
rotate at 53, accelerate to 70 and trim.
At 1500ft, Attitude Power Trim to level off
Ok I will talk you though it are you ready? “your control”
Keep the attitude of the aeroplane just as it is, by making small adjustments in up or down, by raising or lowering the nose of the aeroplane. and keeping the wings level.
To turn the aircraft, gently bank to the left or right and keep the nose on the horizon at the same time.
follow the M8 untill we pass dumbarton, follow the river leven to Alexandrie
“Tower, G-OL, passing Alexandria, request rejoin via standard entry”
“G-OL, approved, clearance limit is Erskin bridge, not above 2000ft.”
“Cleared to rejoin, Limit is Erskin bridge not above 2000ft, G-OL”
Make a 180 turn to the right over Alexandria return Dumbarton. There turn left, follow the north bank of the Clyde to the Erskin bridge.
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“G-OL, number one, report final runway 23”
“Wilco G-OL”
After the Erskin bridge, descent to 700ft along the north bank of the river clyde.
Reduce power to ~1500 RPM, set carb heat ON.
Before the base turn, reduce the speed to 80 knots.
When the speed is below 89, set flaps 21 degrees (first notch)
“G-OL, final runway 23”
“G-OL, Wind is 240/7, runway 23 cleared to land”
“23 cleared to land G-OL”
On final, reduce speed to 70 and set flaps 34 degrees (flaps down)
complete the landing checklist
Fly the aircraft until you are just a couple of inches above the centreline. reduce the power to idle and try to stay in the air for a few seconds to bleed of some speed. after about two seconds, hold the pitch attitude and let the plane settle down on the runway.
Always land the main wheels first, keep the nose wheel about an inch off the ground for about a second, then let it settle down softly. keep a light back pressure until you are at taxi-speed.
Be gentle on the brakes, there is no anti-skid and you don’t want to lock the wheels.
“G-OL, vacate to the right, taxi to the club, monitor ground on 121.7”
“to the right, monitor 121.7 G-OL Cheerio!”
After vacating the runway, set flaps UP, Fuel pump OFF, transponder ON, remember the landing time.
Taxi back and park into wind if possible.
Set 1000 RPM, parking brake set, landing light OFF
Switch off the Avionics,
Magneto dead cut
Set idle power, then mixture off.
When the engine is off, magnetos off, ANTI COLL LIGHT OFF,
BAT and ALT switch OFF
Note the landing and on-blocks time and tacho
consult the post landing notes on the checklist.
Let’s secure the aircraft, and then go inside for a coffee and a de-brief. Do you remember how to open the door?

De-briefing

So, this was exercise 1a. Have you enjoyed it as much as I did? I sincerely hope so. So a quick review of what we have done.
We have familiarised with the aeroplane and some of its characteristics, and some of the most essential items in the cockpit.
After a quick safety brief, we started the engine and prepared the systems for flight.
The best way to operate an aeroplane is to do everything from memory, and then use the checklist to make sure you didn’t forget any critical items.
You may also have noticed that I had to obtain clearances from ATC from time to time, that is because this is a controlled airport.
But even though we received a clearance to line up, we had a good lookout before entering the runway. This is an example of good airmanship. We are working with humans and humans make mistakes. but as long as we stay vigilant we can keep flying safe.
After a quick engine check we took off, and climbed to an altitude of about 1500ft.
To level off in the cruise, the Mnemonic was Attitude, Power Trim. So first the nose of the aircraft was lowered into the cruise attitude, the power reduced and the control forces balanced out with the trim.
To make a turn, we have a good lookout first, and then all we have to do is gently bank the aircraft to the direction we want to go, and keep the nose of the aircraft on the horizon. A little bit of back pressure on the yoke is required to prevent the aircraft from losing altitude.
To start the descent, the mnemonic is Power, Attitude, trim. reduce the power, set the nose in the descent attitude and trim the control forces away.
Then we landed back on runway 23 and taxied back to our GA apron.
I can imagine that the first time flying a light aeroplane can be a bit intense, and that you may not remember everything perfectly for the next flight, but that is normal. For this reason specifically, exercise 1 is split into A and B, and exercise 1B is almost an exact repetition of what we have done today.

Homework

before the next session:
In review of today’s flight, have a look at the POH, casually read though chapter 7 and the expanded procedures in chapter 4. See if you recognise anything from what you have experienced today.

In preparation for the next flight, have a look at chapter 3, the emergency procedures. For now it is sufficient to glance through it, a deeper study will be required before exercise 14.
Piper Tomahawk POH is available here
I hope you have enjoyed the whole experience, If you have any burning questions, feel free to ask. Thank you for flying with me today and I hope to see you soon for the next flight.